Consistent with methods employed in other studies Caughy et al. Inter-rater reliability was analyzed to assess the degree to which raters consistently assigned CPTED ratings to subjects in the study using Cohen's kappa Di Eugenio and Glass, The analysis suggested that coders exhibited substantial agreement in marking behavior ratings; therefore, the ratings were deemed to be adequate for use in testing the hypotheses of the present study. To measure the victimization rate, respondents were asked several questions to assess their property victimization ex- periences using a dichotomous response scale in which respondents indicate whether they have been victimized by responding Yes or No.
Property victimization subsumes completed burglary and objects stolen from outside the house. Re- sponses were then recoded to create a scale ranging from 0 non-victimized to 1 victimized. To avoid the limitation concerning the police crime statistics, we employed a victimization survey to measure crime experiences.
Ac- cording to the offense data maintained by the Royal Malaysian Police, the crime rate in Penang is 1 case for every 50 households Abdullah et al. EFA was chosen because we were interested in exploring the factor structure of the CPTED by identifying underlying common factors that could then be validated and tested in a separate sample using CFA.
To our knowledge, extant studies have only evaluated front house maintenance to measure the fourth CPTED dimension maintenance. PLS path modelling has been used because of its appropriateness for the model used in this study. Another advantage of PLS is its appropriateness for explorative analysis of structural models, which makes PLS a valuable tool for assessing theories.
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Nonparametric bootstrapping Efron and Tibshirani, ; Wetzels et al. As suggested by Wetzels et al. The model explains something that is new and interesting, a concept that was poorly or imperfectly understood beforehand that will now allow adequate prediction of CPTED in urban areas. Results 3.
The Harman one-factor test was con- ducted to determine common method variance CMV. According to Podsakoff and Organ , common method bias is problematic if a single latent factor can account for the majority of the explained variance. Thus, common method bias was not a major concern in the study. EFA data reduction procedures were performed using principle components analysis PCA with varimax rotation to ensure a robust factor structure. Following the literature Comrey and Lee, ; Tabachnick and Fidell, , the present study employed two common decision rules to identify the number of factors underlying the CPTED construct.
Items with less than 0. Based on Kaiser's criterion, an eigenvalue of 1 was used as the cutoff value for extraction. It should be noted that one item lighting 4 had a low factor loading; thus, this item was excluded. Appendix 1 summarizes the factor loadings for the condensed item scale.
In specifying a model, the conceptual constructs in a measurement model are operationalized objectively Hair et al. This study employed the PLS analysis technique to estimate the parameters in outer and inner models Ringle et al. The higher-order latent variables were set up through the repeated use of the manifest variables of the lower-order factors. The result is presented in two steps: First, validating the measurement model and, second, examining the structural model.
A measurement model is used to assess the internal consistency, reliability and construct validity. Construct validity consists of convergent and discriminant validity. Appendix 2 indicates the results of the power analysis and GoF. Construct validity Construct validity is composed of two categories: convergent and discriminant validity Hair et al. Table 4 shows that three methods were used to assess convergent validity: factor loading, composite reliability CR and average variance extracted AVE.
The most common method to examine discriminant validity is comparing the square root of the AVE of each construct and the correlation estimate between constructs; the former must be greater than the latter Fornell and Larcker, Table 4 depicts the result of the measurement model. Convergent validity shows the extent to which several items that measure identical concepts are consistent.
A cut-off value for loadings of 0. The results illustrated that no item had multiple cross- loadings, which indicated preliminary discriminant validity. It should be noted that responses to the physical barrier items, which were dichotomized, were then summed to create a single physical barrier score. The AVE is suggested to have a value of 0. For composite reliability, a value of 0. In this study, the CR exceeds 0. The Cronbach's alpha scores for all the factors were close to the recommended 0. In this study, the lowest alpha value is 0.
Moreover, the discriminant validity is examined using the criterion suggested by Fornell and Larcker As shown in Table 5, the square root of the AVE exceeds the intercorrelations of the construct with the other constructs in the model, in support of discriminant validity Barclay et al.
Constructs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 Visibility 0.
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An assessment of the structural model Table 7 depicts the results of path analysis used to test the hypothesis of direct relationships between the latent variables, as shown in Fig. Discussion The current study extends crime-design research by demonstrating how CPTED can be measured using a third-order construct. This step overcomes the issues related to many scale development practices, including a lack of content validity in the item devel- opment stage. Similar results have been reported by Armitage , Cozens et al.
In the relationship between CPTED and victimization, a number of studies found no direct association e. However, a comparison of the underlying dimensions between the present work and those particular studies reveal that although there are several similar items measuring the respective constructs, previous studies did not include the condition of back lanes in their proposed model.
Having taken this condition into consideration, our result indicates that there is a negative association between CPTED and victimization, where a high level of CPTED is associated with a low level of burglary. In respect to designing or redesigning neighborhoods, one should focus on lighting, design changes to improve surveillance opportunities, access control, neighborhood cleanup and last but not the least design aspects that promote social control within the community.
In this direction, the buildings should be designed in such a way that they allow occupants to observe what goes on around their immediate environment. Implications of the study The CPTED scale developed in this study provides a more comprehensive understanding of the concept, given its multidimensionality comprising of four empirically distinguishable second-order factors surveillance, access control, territoriality and maintenance.
This is because the purpose of this work is to examine the impact of collective elements of CPTED on victimization. In short, CPTED is a third-order factor, which comprises four second-order factors surveillance, access control, territoriality and maintenance. Visibility 0. As for its practical implications, the item scale can be administered by professionals and local authorities to evaluate the extent of neighborhood-level CPTED in an area. Typical examples of implementation include upgrading physical security features at vulnerable houses and providing surveillability at hotspot areas deemed more vulnerable to burglary.
Doing so enables the respective authorities to strategically manage and modify the most important aspects of CPTED during the implementation stage. This allows a practice-based CPTED program to demonstrate and inform people on how to design or redesign out crime. For instance, in terms of lighting and visibility, adding lights for the sake of adding lights makes no sense.
Adding lights where the lighting levels were below local ordinance, where crimes have occurred due to low visibility, makes more sense to the homeowners. Study limitations and directions for future Although the resulting third-order factor model has been subjected to rigorous development and validation procedures, the study is not without room for further investigation. Several other factors may have dampened the amount of potential explained variance. Future researchers may want to study the role of permeability in the variation of crime rates. Those advocating increased permeability are often concerned about maximizing walkability and ultimately sustainability, and do not necessarily relate to crime reduction Cozens and Love, Taylor , p.
However, this is not universal and others promote less accessible streets in relation to crime or fear of crime e. Hence, one of the highly debated subjects in crime-space relationship is permeability Armitage et al. Further research that takes movement within and around neighborhoods into consideration is needed to validate the CPTED scale because there are still unanswered questions regarding the concept of open and closed solutions.
This study has incorporated a more comprehensive scale based on an extensive literature review and expert opinion. None- theless, the scale has been applied in neighborhoods for which the use of CPTED is not coordinated. Hence, there is also a need for future researchers to investigate the scale development in coordinated environment, and to compare the results across uncoordinated environments.
In addition, we believe that more research on pre- and post-implementation stages are needed to understand the crime reducing and crime producing design features. The primary aim of this study was to develop and validate a measure of CPTED in a residential environment. Crime prevention practitioners should take these factors into consideration when making informed decisions for future de- velopments. Practitioners need a survey instrument that is valid and reliable.
If an instrument is not valid, it may be measuring other concepts and not what it was intended to measure. The scale can be applied to a wide range of landed residential properties. Professionals may also use the scale to evaluate the success of their implementation of CPTED and its impact on crime reduction.
In line with the literature Armitage, ; Cozens, b; Gultekin and Gultekin, , the results adhere to the premise that crime can be reduced and ultimately prevented through manipulations of the built environment. The study suggests that CPTED design guidelines in Malaysia should be deliberated to cover a more comprehensive set of environmental design factors that are compatible with the social and physical environments in Malaysia.
As illustrated by the case studies in the literature review, dozens of documented examples of successful applications of CPTED strategies in developed nations now exist. Many of these successes were obtained in practical ways in an attempt to solve troublesome crime issues confronting citizens. Successful experiences in countries such as the Netherlands have shown that it is feasible for crime to be prevented through a focus on environmental design.
Although Malaysia is still in its infancy in developing CPTED guidelines, some lessons can be learned from the experiences of other industrialized countries and used to develop guidelines from a local point of view. Prior to the development of CPTED guidelines, however, there is a need to examine crime risk assessments within the urban environment. To prevent crime, the understanding of crime prevention by design agencies and professionals involved in the design process of residential areas must take these factors into consideration.
Professionals should better understand design against crime techniques and use these strategies in practice to control crime Sorenson et al. It is often the case that most professionals, such as urban planners and designers, are not familiar with this concept. It is common to hear grouses that CPTED interventions should have been implemented at the beginning stages of development, that is, the planning and design stages.
However, evidence suggests that this notion has been largely ignored in reality. Architects, urban developers, city administrators and property owners should actively participate in CPTED programs. In doing so, not only the amount of crime can be reduced, other factors such as the livability and wellness of the surrounding area will be enhanced.
Front house maintenance Maintenance 1 0. Backlane maintenance Maintenance 8 0. Landscaping Landscape 1 0. Visibility Visibility 1 0. Lighting Lighting 1 0. Physical barrier Barrier 1 0. Markers Territorial markers 0. Security system Security system 0. SIM: Single item measure.
Appendix 2. An evaluation of the PLS model. Raykov and Marcoulides strongly recommended that the power of a study using PLS path modelling should be assessed and recommended. It is the likelihood of detecting an effect when an effect is there to be detected. If the statistical power is high, then we can conclude that the probability of making a Type 2 error reduces. Statistical power has become increasingly common in the social and behavioral sciences Faul et al.
The result revealed that the power for the dependent variable victimization is 0. In the present study, we obtained a GoF value of 0. This result revealed that the overall model has excellent exploratory power in comparison to the baseline values recom- mended by Wetzels et al.
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