Handbook of energy audits

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Aggregate base loads will represent as the intercept of this regression and the slope will typically represent the combination of building envelope conduction and infiltration losses less losses or gains from the base loads themselves. For example, while lighting is typically a base load, the heat generated from that lighting must be subtracted from the weather sensitive cooling load derived from the slope to gain an accurate picture of the true contribution of the building envelope on cooling energy use and demand.

The preliminary audit alternatively called a simple audit, screening audit or walk-through audit is the simplest and quickest type of audit. It involves minimal interviews with site-operating personnel, a brief review of facility utility bills and other operating data, and a walk-through of the facility to become familiar with the building operation and to identify any glaring areas of energy waste or inefficiency. Typically, only major problem areas will be covered during this type of audit.

Corrective measures are briefly described, and quick estimates of implementation cost, potential operating cost savings, and simple payback periods are provided. A list of energy conservation measures ECMs, or energy conservation opportunities, ECOs requiring further consideration is also provided.

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This level of detail, while not sufficient for reaching a final decision on implementing proposed measure, is adequate to prioritize energy-efficiency projects and to determine the need for a more detailed audit. The general audit alternatively called a mini-audit, site energy audit or detailed energy audit or complete site energy audit expands on the preliminary audit described above by collecting more detailed information about facility operation and by performing a more detailed evaluation of energy conservation measures. Utility bills are collected for a to month period to allow the auditor to evaluate the facility's energy demand rate structures and energy usage profiles.

If interval meter data is available, the detailed energy profiles that such data makes possible will typically be analyzed for signs of energy waste. In-depth interviews with facility operating personnel are conducted to provide a better understanding of major energy consuming systems and to gain insight into short- and longer-term energy consumption patterns.

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This type of audit will be able to identify all energy-conservation measures appropriate for the facility, given its operating parameters. A detailed financial analysis is performed for each measure based on detailed implementation cost estimates, site-specific operating cost savings, and the customer's investment criteria. Sufficient detail is provided to justify project implementation. The evolution of cloud-based energy auditing software platforms is enabling the managers of commercial buildings to collaborate with general and specialty trades contractors in performing general and energy system-specific audits.

In most corporate settings, upgrades to a facility's energy infrastructure must compete for capital funding with non-energy-related investments. Both energy and non-energy investments are rated on a single set of financial criteria that generally stress the expected return on investment ROI.

The projected operating savings from the implementation of energy projects must be developed such that they provide a high level of confidence. In fact, investors often demand guaranteed savings. The investment-grade audit expands on the detailed audit described above and relies on a complete engineering study in order to detail technical and economical issues necessary to justify the investment related to the transformations.

The following procedure proposes to make an intensive use of modern BES tools at each step of the audit process, from benchmarking to detailed audit and financial study:. The advent of high-resolution thermography has enabled inspectors to identify potential issues within the building envelope by taking a thermal image of the various surfaces of a building.

For purposes of an energy audit, the thermographer will analyze the patterns within the surface temperatures to identify heat transfer through convection, radiation, or conduction. It is important to note that the thermography only identifies surface temperatures, and analysis must be applied to determine the reasons for the patterns within the surface temperatures. Thermal analysis of a home generally costs between and dollars. For those who cannot afford a thermal inspection, it is possible to get a general feel for the heat loss with a non-contact infrared thermometer and several sheets of reflective insulation.

The method involves measuring the temperatures on the inside surfaces of several exterior walls to establish baseline temperatures. After this, reflective barrier insulation is taped securely to the walls in 8-foot 2. The best manner in which to do this is when the temperature differential Delta T between the inside and outside of the structure is at least 40 degrees. A well-insulated wall will commonly change approximately 1 degree per hour if the difference between external and internal temperatures is an average of 40 degrees.

A poorly insulated wall can drop as much as 10 degrees in an hour. With increases in carbon dioxide emissions or other greenhouse gases, pollution audits are now a prominent factor in most energy audits. Implementing energy efficient technologies help prevent utility generated pollution. With engineering knowledge one can take gather the information using these principles and then calculate the carbon footprint and other metrics for your busines. Taking Care of the Basics.

More Books by Albert Thumann, P.E., C.E.M, Terry Niehus, P.E., C.E.M. & William Younger, C.E.M.

October 30, - Published on Amazon. This manual is intended as an comprehensive reference to do an energy analysis of any system. The book provides all the information you need to establish an energy program for your building o industrial plant. I am very pleased with the content and presentation of your Handbook of Energy Audits. Jaime Amigo V.

Handbook of Energy Audits, Ninth Edition

Go to Amazon. Discover the best of shopping and entertainment with Amazon Prime. View Section, 4. Energy Economics. View Section, 5. Survey Instrumentation. View Section, 6. The Building Envelope Audit. View Section, 7. The Electrical System Audit. View Section, 8. View Section, 9. View Section, The Physical Plant Audit.

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Central Plant Retrofit Considerations. Maintenance and Energy Audits.

Handbook of Energy Audits, 7th Ed, 2008, Thumann & Younger @ +6285.724.265.515 Bukupedia

Self-Evaluation Checklists. A Compendium of Handy Working Aids.

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Computer Software for Energy Audits. Investment Grade Energy Audits. View Section, Glossary.

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