Spaces of the Sacred and Profane: Dickens, Trollope, and the Victorian Cathedral Town

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Gadd, W. The Great Expectations Country. Payne, E. Boston: P for members of the Bibliophile Society, Stevens, James S. Quotations and References in Charles Dickens. Boston: Christopher, Wagenknecht, Edward. A Child's Charles Dickens. Brewer, Lether A. Dickens and Democracy and Other Studies. Darwin, Bernard. The Dickens Advitiser. London: Elkin Mathews and Marrot, The London of Dickens. Kent, William. Dickens and Religion. London: Watts, Stonehouse, J. London: Piccadilly Fountain, Zweig, Stefan. Three Masters: Balzac, Dickens, Dostoeffsky. Eden and Cedar Paul.

London: G. Allen and Unwin, Random Thoughts on Dickens. Philadelphia: C. Sessler, Philadelphia, Osborne, Charles C. Murray, Stonehouse, John H. Dickens and His Times. Sitwell, Osbert. London: Chatte and Windus, London: Putnam, Eck, John C. London: Maggs, London: Argonaut, London: Duckworth, Dent, H. The Life and Character of Charles Dickens. As Dickens Saw Them. Hatton, Thomas and Arthur H. Leacock, Stephen. Charles Dickens: His Life and Work. London: P. Davies, Livingston, Flora V. Charles Dickens's Letters to Charles Lever. McNulty, J. Concerning Dickens and Other Literary Characters.

Keighley, West Yorkshire: Wadsworth, Wethered, H. London: Seeley Service, The Recollections of Sir Henry Dickens. London: William Heinemann, Kingsmill, Hugh. London: Wishart, Maurois, Andre. Hamish Miles. London: John Lane the Bodley Head, Boston, Charles Dickens: His Letters to Her. London: Constable, London for Dickens Lovers. Wright, Thomas. London: Herbert Jenkins, The Age of Dickens and Thackeray. Witherby, Dexter, Walter and J. Santayana, George. Dickens: The Man and the Book.

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London: Thomas Nelson, Charles Dickens: The Progress of a Radical. Waugh, Arthur. Charles Dickens and His Illustrators. A Portrait of Dickens. Dickens and His Age: An Essay. Cranton, Storey, Gladys. Dickens and Daughter. London: Frederick Muller, Introducing Charles Dickens. New York: Dodd, Mead, The Dickens World. Oxford: Oxford UP, Wilson, Edmund. Allen, New York: Readers Club, Dickens in the Light of English Criticism. Helsinki: R. West, Charles Dickens: Dickens's Work in Germany. Oxford, Miller, William, comp. Orwell, George. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, The Dickens Reader.

New York: Howell Soskin, Charles Dickens and Early Victorian England. London: Pitman, Pearson, Hesketh. Dickens: His Character, Comedy, and Career. London: Andrew Dakers, Yamamoto, Tadao. Growth and System in the Language of Dickens. The Drood Murder Case. Symons, Julian. London: Arthur Barker, Graham, Eleanor. The Story of Charles Dickens. Johnson, Edgar, introd. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, Johnson, Edgar. Charles Dickens: His Tragedy and Triumph.

New York: Simon and Schuster, Nisbet, Ada. Dickens and Ellen Ternan. Wagenknecht, Edward, ed. An Introduction to Dickens. Chicago: Scott, London: Longman, Harrison, Michael. Readings from Dickens. London: Heinemann, In the Steps of Charles Dickens. London: Rich and Cowan, Allen, Walter. London: Hamilton, Ford, George H.

Cape, Cambridge: W. Bredsdorff, Elias. Johannsen, Albert. Phiz Illustrations from the Novels of Charles Dickens.


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Chicago: U of Chicago P, Georgina Hogarth and the Dickens Circle. Bolm, Adolf and R. Vaughan Williams. London: Oxford UP, Butt, John and Kathleen Tillotson. Dickens at Work. Charles Dickens: A Critical Introduction. London: Longmans, Miller, J. Dickens Incognito. London: Rupert Hart-Davis, Engel, Monroe. The Maturity of Dickens. Manning, John. Dickens on Education. Toronto: U of Toronto P, Quirk, Randolph. Durham: Durham UP, The Selected Letters of Charles Dickens. New York: Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, Fielding, K. J, ed. Oxford: Clarendon, Discussions of Charles Dickens.

Boston: D. Heath, Cockshut, A. The Imagination of Charles Dickens. London: Collins, Du Cann, C. The Love-Lives of Charles Dickens. Ford, G. The Dickens Critics. Priestley, J. Charles Dickens, and His World. London: Thames and Hudson, Charles Dickens: A Pictorial Biography. Dickens and Adult Education.

Leicester: U of Leicester, Collins, Philip. Dickens and Crime. Gross, John and Gabriel Pearson, eds. Dickens and the Twentieth Century. New York: Russell, Pringle, Patrick. The Young Dickens. London: Max Parrish, Reid, J. The Hidden World of Charles Dickens. Dickens in His Time. Clair, Colin. Charles Dickens: Life and Character. Dickens and Education. Davis, Earle R. Elsna, Hebe.

Unwanted Wife: A Defence of Mrs. London: Jarrolds, Hollingsworth, Keith. Detroit: Wayne State UP, Spilka, Mark. Dickens and Kafka: A Mutual Interpretation. The Drood Case. Johnson, Edgar and Eleanor. The Dickens Theatrical Reader. Thomas, George. Charles Dickens: Great Expectations. Studies in English Literature. London: Edward Arnold, Cambridge: Harvard UP, Fleissner, Robert F.

Dickens and Shakespeare. Garis, Robert. Marcus, Steven. Dickens: From Pickwick to Dombey. Schilling, Bernard N. Stoehr, Taylor. Dickens: The Dreamer's Stance. Dickens and the Scandalmongers: Essays in Criticism. Barnes, John. Critical Commentaries. Brannan, Robert L, ed. Under the Management of Mr. Donovan, Robert A. Elliott, Ralph W. London in the Age of Dickens. Coolidge, A. Charles Dickens as Serial Novelist. Dabney, Ross H. Love and Property in the Novels of Dickens.

Gerson, Stanley. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell, Hibbert, Christopher. The Making of Charles Dickens. Jarmuth, Sylvia L. Dickens's Use of Women in His Novels. New York: Excelsior, Price, Martin, ed. Dickens: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Charles Dickens: Little Dorrit. Charles Dickens: The Early Novels. Burton, H.

Dickens and His Works. London: Methuen Educational, Dyson, A. Dickens: Modern Judgements. Fido, Martin. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, Hardwick, Michael and Mollie. The Charles Dickens Companion. Hardy, Barbara. Dickens: The Later Novels. Monod, Sylvere. Dickens the Novelist. Smith, Graham, Dickens, Money, and Society. Pope, Dickens and Others. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, Coustillas, Pierre. London: Enitharmon, Donovan, Frank. The Children of Charles Dickens. London: Leslie Frewin, Dickens: Bleak House: A Casebook. Casebook Series. Ford, Boris, ed. From Dickens to Hardy.

Haines, Charles. Studies in Language and Literature. Immortals of Literature. New York: F. Watts, Johnson, E. New York: Random, New York: Random House, Stone, Harry, ed. The Uncollected Writings of Charles Dickens. London: Allen Lane, Tomlin, F. Charles Dickens A Centennial Volume. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Wing, George. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, The Language of Dickens. London: Andre Deutch, Brown, Ivor, comp.

Charles Dickens, London: Jackdaw, Brown, Ivor. Dickens and His World. London: Lutterworth, Cox, Helen. Oxford: Pergamon, Daleski, H. Dickens and the Art of Analogy. London: Faber, Dickens, Monica. London: London Transport Executive, New York: Hamlyn, Fitzsimons, Raymund. New York: J. Lippincott, London: Geoffrey Bles, Fletcher, Geoffrey. The London Dickens Knew. London: Hutchinson, Gaskell, E. Dickens and Medicine. London: Wellcome Institute, Dickens's England. The Moral Art of Dickens: Essays. London: Athlone, Horsman, E.

Dickens and the Structure of the Novel. Folcroft, PA: Folcroft Library, Hutchings, Richard J. Dickens on an Island. Bath: Brodie, Leavis, F. Lucas, John. Mackenzie, R. Partlow, Robert B. Dickens the Craftsman: Strategies of Presentation. Pluckrose, H. A Dickens Anthology. London: Mills and Boon, Rooke, Patrick. The Age of Dickens. London: Wayland, Slater, Michael, ed. Dickens Centenary Essays. Sucksmith, Harvey P. Szladits, L. Charles Dickens, An Anthology.

Wall, Stephen, ed. Charles Dickens: A Critical Anthology. Harmondsworth: Penguin, The ILN obituaries often provide valuable information that complements materials we already have, as did the one for F. Illustrated London News also provided images contemporary architecture, including of St. At the beginning of the month, Jacqueline Banerjee enjoyed reviewing Cynthia Gamble's Wenlock Abbey, and this prompted a new section on embroidery , both domestic and secular, with several new pieces included.

In this connection, she opened a new folder on the portrait-painter John Ballantyne , who famously painted Landseer at work on his lions. Milnes's postmortem sketch of Wellington was also incorporated in the account of his statue of Wellington in this section. Joe Pilling's latest and very welcome review, of Jo Manton's Sister Dora: A Life of Dorothy Pattison , then prompted a piece about her statue in Walsall the first public statue of any woman outside the royal family.

Later in the month JB added an essay on George Meredith and Emilie Maceroni — Emilie inspired Meredith's heroine in his "Italian novels" — and several new pictures and commentaries for Meredith's gallery. Two interesting new items relating to Meredith were a study and drawing by Rossetti, who used Meredith's portrait as the head of Jesus in Mary at the Door of Simon.

Thanks to Rob Poole who shared a drawing of a railway tunnel that shows the opposite end of one depicted by Nieman Smith, and thanks to Caroline Rumsey for correcting an error made when we re-organized the Cruikshank folder. The conference took place in the Georg Christoph Lichtenberg House , the former home of Prince Otto Heinrich zu Schaumburg-Lippe, who had it decorated in art nouveau tiles and woodwork. Looking through photo files of material from museums in Europe and the U. Darley , thus far completing commentaries on two dozen plates.

This month Jacqueline Banerjee has been looking at some churches. She rewrote her earlier entries on Benjamin Ferrey's Christ Church, Esher , with the welcome addition of interior pictures from contributing photographer John Salmon. The photos here came from a new contributor, Michael Critchlow: many thanks! They included church furniture like this unusual font by William Lethaby, and a whole series of wonderful Burne-Jones and Morris windows. They included some church embroidery, which prompted opening a new section on this craft.

Besides the well-known artists were two who needed introductions, so JB also made new indexes for Sir Ninian Comper, both in the architecture section and in the stained glass section ; she said a little too about the stained glass firm, A. Other contributions that came JB's way were from Chris Bell, a member of the Milnes family, who sent in a timeline for, and a note on the birthdate of , the sculptor Thomas Milnes, accompanied by photos of his grave.

These small pieces represent a great deal of research: we are grateful again that Chris shared it with us. Our regular political history reviewer, Joe Pilling, reviewed the diary of Sir Edward Eddy Walter Hamilton , a top civil servant with an important role in that service for example, he organised Gladstone's funeral. He lived at Whitehall Court , the subject of one of Joseph Pennell's most evocative night scenes, so JB added that too. At the end of the month, she also wrote about S.

Joe Pilling sent in another review, too, this time of Paul Brighton's fascinating Original Spin , about political "spin" operating even in Victorian times. Vitus Cathedral , which raise the question, does it embody Gothic survival or revival? Prague, which is far richer in Art Nouveau than any city in the U. Allingham has completed his series of illustrated essays on the individual plates in C. Spence's stunning mosaic scheme , a selection of his stained glass there, Ralph Hedley's woodcarving , and George Frampton's memorials to Charles Mitchell and his son, Charles William Mitchell.

Filling a gap that she found in the stained glass sequence, she added two late-Victorian panels from the Booth Museum of Natural History in Brighton, together with a piece on the quirky little museum itself. She also reviewed a welcome new book about the sculptor Benjamin Creswick. Also to Dr J. Ken Roberts and his friend, Dennis Eaton, who sent in more pictures and information about St Cybi's Church, Holyhead , which prompted a spate on new work on it, and especially on its stained glass windows from the Morris Co. This included a brief note on a new stained glass maker, John J. Catherines After a Gale and permitting us to include it our section for that painter.

Thanks to Michael Haskell, a ninth grader from Hilliard, Ohio, who reported some typographical errors. What remains? Reformatting the sections containing Spanish and French translations, and exchanging the old diamond-shaped homepages for authors, artists, and a few subjects for lists that will work better. Only about a dozen remain. We welcome on board Dr. After moving from snowy and cold Ontario, PVA has returned to the balmy climate of Vancouver, leaving it briefly to give a talk in Poland. In between unpacking his books and getting a ticket for his jaunt to Krakow, he began twenty-five commentaries on the illustrations of A Christmas Carol by Charles Edmund Brock , completing the first five before his departure.

She also formatted and illustrated several reviews. Many thanks to all these reviewers for sharing their responses with us. Photographer John Salmon sent in some more of his lovely photographs, this time of St Michael and All Angels, Ladbroke Grove , for which, and for the beautiful stained glass windows there, JB wrote a commentaries.

Photographer Peter Loud also sent in some more great photographs, further examples of Ralph Hedley's marvellous woodcarvings in the choir of St Nicholas Cathedral, Newcastle, misericords and other curious features. After a trip to France, where she had been invited to read a paper at an international study-day on the sculptor Carlo Marochetti in very daunting company! Many thanks to Beth Newman, Associate Professor of English, Southern Methodist University, for giving a head's up about a bad link to an external site that has disappeared.

Allingham, who has completed most of the commentaries in the Green section, is working with GPL on adding to and improving the Phiz illustrations, beginning with a new folder for Dickens's Dombey and Son. Jacqueline Banerjee, who has taken even more responsibility for the quality of the site, began the month modifying and improving work in the Places section. So far Derbyshire and Dorset have been spruced up.

To Dorset, she added a photo-essay on Weymouth in mainly Victorian times, and another on the statue of Queen Victoria there. Other work this month included biographies of the artists Louisa Anne Beresford and Eleanor Vere Boyle , and some works by each, and accounts of two statues in Calcutta for people still held in much respect there, Sir Edward Hyde East and the educationist David Hare. Church photographer John Salmon has also sent in dozens of marvellous photographs, the first of which, documenting James Brooks's dramatic All Hallows, Gospel Oak , are now online.

Simon Cooke ended last month and began with new one by creating a new section on Edward Poynter 's illustrations. In the first two weeks or so of this month, your webmaster continued reformatting sections of the site, finishing architecture and illustration except for parts of Phiz that Phillip Allingham is taken in hand , and the reformatting also involves exchanging our diamond-shaped design for various sitemaps homepages with lists that are easier to read on smart phones.

Landow renamed the originally homepage for the site oldindex. John Salmon joins us a contributing photographer. This has marvellous north and south wall-paintings by Nathaniel Westlake and stained glass by Heaton, Butler and Bayne, much of it, like the beautiful east window , by Butterfield himself, but including also James Clark's memorial window based on his famous World War I painting, The Great Sacrifice. This led to a biography of Clark and the inclusion of more of his works, like the touching Blind Mary many thanks to Hartlepool Art Gallery's Charlotte Taylor for all her help.

She also wrote an essay on the Victorian's restoration work on Westminster Abbey. She has started a Twitter account for our website, too! Please follow us on it, and add some replies! Many thanks to the Reverend Canon Stephen Evans for updating us on the whereabouts of the altar before which the Brownings took their marriage vows.

It was returned to St Marylebone Parish Church in , in time for the bicentenary of Robert's birth. Thanks also to photographer Peter Loud, who contributed some photographs for Jacqueline Banerjee's last project this month, on the paintings and woodcarvings of Newcastle artist Ralph Hedley.

In this connection, many thanks too to the Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle, and the Shipley Art Gallery, Gateshead, for permission to reproduce paintings. June began and continued very much the way May had gone — with your webmaster reformatting, reconfiguring, and updating the HTML documents in our architecture section. By the middle of the month he had completed the folder containing Gothic revival architecture in Poland and by the 25th completed architecture.

Robson and T. This prompted her to write an essay on Arts and Crafts or Art Nouveau? Many thanks again to John Salmon for his major part in these collaborative projects. Simon Cooke continues his work on Simeon Solomon , scanning more than a dozen of his illustrations of the Old Testament to which has added commentaries.

He also continues his work on the buildings of British India with Col. Georges Cathedral. By the twenty-ninth the site had 84, documents and images. After sizing the images, adjusting their colors, and creating the htmls, Landow put the following works of sculpture online: M. Bertram Pegram's Father Time. Working with Philip V. Allingham, Landow created a section for C. Brock with 30 illustrations of Dickens's Christmas Books: Our contributing editor from Canada provided scans of the plates and information about them and Landow then resized them, adjusted color and contrast, created a final version of an index for Brock.

As time permits, Allingham will add his usual documents containing the text illustrated, detailed commentaries, and comparisons with work by other illustrators of the same works. On the 12th he completed the first if them, Brock's frontispiece for A Christmas Carol — He had been Tim's blood horse all the way from church. More to come! Allingham, who is about to become an emeritus member of the faculty at Lakeland University, leave Ontario, and return to Vancouver, has not slowed the rate of his contributions even while packing books and moving house! Over the past three weeks he has also contributed image scans of Charles Green 's wonderful illustrations of works by Dickens.

Thus far he has also completed almost all the commentaries and sets of comparative images for the 31 plates in The Chimes. Jacqueline Banrejee created a new section on John Raphael Roderigues Brandon , which includes four buildings and an extensive biographical introduction. Turning to photography, she created a long overdue section on Lewis Carroll , which includes a dozen photographs and her incisive commentaries.

These involved adding commentaries and writing a short biography of James Brooks , as well as biographies of the sculptors J. Taylerson and Richard Westmacott, Jr. Susan Guralnik, M. On the 25th the site had 84, documents and images as reformatting and winnowing documents continues amid a flood of excellent contributions.

April pril began with your webmaster working hours a day converting the footer icons to the new format. Thus far the sections on genre, history, religion, and sculpture have seen completion as well as about half the authors discussed on the site. Barnabas Pimlico and the nearby sister-church St. Mary the Virgin also known as St. Mary's Bourne Street. Returning on a Saturday morning when Mr. John Boshier, the friendly and informative guide at St. Barnabas, opened it to visitors, Landow created a series on the church's interior, including its mosaics and stained glass.

She then wrote a short biography of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker , the influential botanist and adventurous plant-collector, because Dr Jim Endersby of Sussex University kindly let us take some excerpts from his books on the history of science, three of which listed at the end of Hooker's biography are on Hooker. At the end of the month she formatted and illustrated another fascinating review from Cercles , on Harry Furniss's political caricatures and magic lantern shows , for which she also supplied some examples, including Furniss's famous depictions of a high-collared Gladstone.

Leisure and Labour in Victorian Britain

Tom Ward kindly shared the introduction and discussion of indexing The Girl's Own Paper from his website. Continuing to prune the site of unneeded thumbnails and footer icons, it still grows, though more slowly, and now has 83, documents and images as of the twenty-seventh. By the 14th this valuable resource that links to everything on the site from railways gold earrings were made of miniature locomotives!

This approach, which obviates the need to create an image for each icon, has the further advantages of allowing us to provide them for authors, artists, and topics that have too few associated documents to warrant creating the oler images while also avoiding annoying variations in color and tone of the image-based footer icons. One problem we haven't solved yet: getting your webmaster's beloved Oxford font to work on our servers.

Take a look at one group of documents for which this time-consuming conversion has been completed. Jacqueline Banerjee has created a new section on Julia Margaret Cameron thus far containing a biography, bibliography, and eight of her photographs. This was followed by a set of Daniel Maclise's illustrations for Cameron's translation of the popular ballad Leonora , and then by work on the artist, etcher and illustrator William Strang — a biography , four paintings including her favourite, The Love Letter , ten etchings including a particularly characterful self-portrait and two of his popular pencil and chalk portraits.

Turner from his blog, Why Ruskin. Joe Leggiero sent in an example of stained glass from the worksop of Heaton, Butler and Bayne. On March 30th, the site had 83, documents and images — a net loss of 14 of them since dozens of unneeded thumbnail images and footer icons have been discarded as we convert to text-based navigation tiles. Continuing his work on Kyd, he added several dozen more character portraits from Dickens. Then she reviewed the splendid new rehang at the Guildhall Art Gallery , where these and many more paintings are currently displayed.

Joe Leggiero shared a photograph of his stained glass Head of a Prophet supposedly created by Heaton, Butler and Bayne. Please contact the webmaster if you have any information on this piece. The keynote speaker will be the eminent Victorianist Professor Sally Shuttleworth of the University of Oxford, and there will be a chance to visit the archives of the Tennyson Research Centre in Lincoln. Anyone interested in attending should contact meredithconference bishopg. Snowed in with temperatures outside occasionally dropping to -3 Fharenheit The Magazine of Art also provided images of individual works by artists for whom we already have sections, such as William Blake Richmond and William Lionel Wyllie , as well as artists new to the site, including Walter Langley , E.

Linton , and J. Much of her time this month has been spent arranging, formatting and illustrating some valuable new contributions. Many thanks to Michael Blaker, R.

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Another very welcome new contributor, Pradip Das, has sent in some chapters from his book on the Irish architect Henry Irwin who designed many buildings in India, prompting a revision of Irwin's index. Then, at the very end of the month, JB was invited to the Guildhall Art Gallery's fabulous new rehang of its Victorian paintings. Very many thanks to Julia Dudkiewicz, Principal Curator for the rehang, and Sonia Solicari, returning Principal Curator, for taking me round and talking so knowledgeably about the paintings, and for giving the Victorian Web permission to put the collection up on our website — a formidable task.

Thanks, too, to Dr. Katherine Miller Webber for creating the web version. After meeting with the Director of the Brown University Libraries and the head of its digital scholarship group, he learned that only a single one of their projects relates to Victorian matters, but the enormous Anne S. Brown Military Collection includes, among many other things, hundreds of nineteenth-century images. Drawing upon this treasure trove of images, he began a sections in visual arts on the army in British India and the Boer War as well as adding to older material on the Crimean War.

Thanks to both Jacqueline Banerjee and Tim Willasey-Wilsey for assistance deciphering text on some of the thirty-five watercolors and lithographs added to the site. As a proof-of-concept project intended to show how the Victorian Web adds value to material available online, your webmaster has created an amplified, enriched web-version of Arthur Conan Doyle's a detailed history of the causes, events, and consequences of the South African conflict.

Readers will encounter his text illustrated by 1 the watercolors of Mortimer Menpes , an artist usually remembered for his work in the Whistler circle, 2 British and German images of battles , and 3 many photographs of Boer leaders , army units, civilian life, and troops in action. Taken together, this Boer War project offers contrasting views of the events, though both sides agree about the gallantry of those they fought. These pieces led to a brief study of Pugin's "French Connection" , and an introduction to the architect Benjamin Ferrey , who accompanied the Pugins on their drawing tours to France.

New additions include a number of illustrated essays, including two by M. Ricketts as a Book-Builder. William Owen Stanley , and numerous works by Franz von Stuck and a portrait of him. Jackie Banerjee wrote photo-essays about the interior and exterior of St Bartholomew's, Brighton and formatted, linked, and illustrated Antoine Capet's review of a Darwin Exhibition at the Natural History Museum, and also his review of the new William Morris exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery. Simon Cooke continued his series of essays on Victorian book designers with an essay on Albert Warren accompanied by more than a dozen photographs and descriptions of book covers warren designed.

Antoine Capet contributed an essay on Emery Walker, the pioneering designer of fonts and a close associate of William Morris. Joe Pilling contributed another fine book review, this time on A. Wilson's new life of Queen Victoria. Thanks to Andrew Marienberg for pointing out a repeated paragraph in one of the scanned texts of the Bridgewater Treatises. Brown Macdougall. Waterhouse's The Oracle. GPL also added G. Paul's Cathedral, drawings of museums in Birmingham and Reading , a detail of Indian architecture.

Ellison Jr Collection of French Ceramics c. Wales, and Robert Stephenson's Britannia Bridge over the Menai , nearby — two of the age's great engineering feats. The latter was guarded by sculptor John Thomas's four monumental Egyptian-style lions. Then off again to India, with an essay on the history of Delhi's oldest church, St James' , with its memories of an older Imperial India and the Sepoy Rebellion, and the bizarre case of the East India Company's Delhi agent, Sir Thomas Metcalfe, who turned an early seventeenth-century tomb into his country house — "Dilkusha" or Heart's Delight.

Margaret Crawford. Thanks, too, to Greg Bird for pointing out a typo. The plan is to integrate it with VW commentaries on specific passages the novel and James Kincaid's book on Trollope. Philip Allingham has recently edited a special issue of The Dickens Magazine that contains sixteen essays, three by him and one by Jackie Banerjee. He also continued working on his Oliver Twist illustrations project, part of which included adding his scans of 28 plates by James Mahoney and a similar number by Harry Furniss.

Jacqueline Banerjee, having completed her series of photo essays on the architecture of Strawberry Hill, began work on the building's stained glass , creating seven essays containing three dozen photographs. Next, she provided essays on George Stephenson's Kilsby Tunnel , his life and birthplace at Wylam, Northumberland, and probably the oldest surviving train station in the world -- at Wylam.

Another wonderful old Victorian station came next, Tynemouth , also in Northumberland, and two bridges: more work on Baron Armstrong's Swing Bridge on the Tyne, and a new piece on Robert Stevenson's High Level Bridge there, both great engineering feats for their times, and part of the sensational vista of central Tyne crossings at Newcastle. Mia Ridge, doctoral student in digital humanities at the Open University, sent along new information about Margaret Giles's Boy on a Tortoise.

Thanks to Simon Montgomery for correcting the names of the painter and engraver of a portrait of Sir Walter Scott, and thanks to Casey Ward for spotting a spelling error. Graham Dry writes from Munich to correct information about a Leighton binding. In addition GPL added material on Emily Faithfull, and the English Women's Journal and on the divide in Victorian feminism between women's public rights and their private ones. Next, he created a section on W.

Allingham added R. Knight's illustrations for Thomas Hardy's Under the Greenwood Tree , a project which involved reconfiguring the Hardy main page and adding photographs associated with places in the novel. He next began a project involving visual material related to Oliver Twist , contributing images and in-depth commentaries thirty plates by Felix Darley , including thirteen from Scenes and Characters from Dickens Next, he began to write commentaries for the original 24 Cruikshank illustrations.

She then added a third stained glass designer new to the site — William Wailes — plus three of his windows, and his remarkable home, Saltwell Towers in Saltwell Park. In addition, she has identified several memorials in St. Three monuments were by Marochetti, and this prompted a new collaboration with Caroline Hedengren-Dillon, who sent in photographs for a short essay on Marochetti's monument there to the Viscounts Melbourne , with its two lovely angels. Church, East Greenwich. Many thanks to both. JB's last major project this month took the form of a series of eight photo essays containing more than 40 images on Horace Walpole's Strawberry Hill.

Table of Contents

Zack Rearick, M. Thanks to Albert Hickson, who wrote identifying the open doorway in one of our photographs of Venice as the entrance to the convent of San Stefano. Allingham began the month by completing the section containing sixteen plates for R. She also reviewed Catriona Blaker's book on E. Pugin in Kent. JB's other work this month included a new essay on Marochetti's first great equestrian statue, of Emmanuele Filiberto in Turin.

She was helped here by Caroline Hedengren-Dillon, who herself contributed Marochetti's medallion portrait of his daughter Giovanna. Many thanks for that. Finally, we opened a new section to bring together work on that quintessential Victorian, Samuel Smiles. In the following days she added two dozen more. Valeria Aleksandrova writes that she has translated one of our docs on early locomotives into Swedish, and Kate Bondareva e-mails from Germany that she's translated into French our directions for contributors. May's Voyage of the Slave Ship: J.

Turner's Masterpiece in Historical Context After photographing Joseph Durham's The Rowers in a private collection, Landow added to the materials on the sculptor. As the month ended, he reviewed Terry Deary's Dangerous Days on the Victorian Railways: A history of the terrors and the torments, the dirt, diseases and deaths suffered by our ancestors. Jacqueline Banerjee finished her work on Pugin at the very end of last month with two of the preparatory drawings for the Houses of Parliament, went on to format Joe Pilling's review see below with two sets of selected passages about Archbishop Benson's extraordinary wife Mary Benson and her "unequal marriage" these last with help from GPL!

She also added pictures of the original interiors of Leighton House to modern photographs of it, giving some contemporary views of the artist's home. Some collaborations followed: with John Kemp over Old Place in Lindfield, Sussex , home of his great-great-granduncle, the stained glass artist Charles Eamer Kempe; and with Clodagh Brown over the work of her greatgrandfather Ralph Hedley in St Nicholas, Newcastle this was a rewrite of an earlier entry. She then looked at J. Pearson's St James' Church, Weybridge. This involved opening sections for two new stained glass artists, George Hedgeland and Michael O'Connor , as well as adding works by familiar names such as Sir Edward Burne-Jones , and Francis Chantrey.

Thanks to James Heffernan, founder and editor-in-chief of Review 19 for generously sharing the reviews on his site with readers of the Victorian Web. The first one on our site is Laurence Davies's brilliant review of Jonathan H. Over the next few days, Landow put up six reviews of books about Dickens, three about Trollope, two on Tennyson, and two dozen on more general subjects plus several each in other sections of the site, such as Genre , Gender Matters , Technology , and Social and Political History. Penelope Harris, a new contributor, sent in a biography of the architect-inventor Joseph Hansom and the church he and his son designed: Church of the Holy Name of Jesus R.

After a collector who wishes to remain anonymous contributed photographs of Victorian and Edwardian medals and information about them, your webmaster spent the first few days in April creating html documents for them. This collection includes multiple new works by three artists — 1 Frank Bowcher Col. Lewis R. In addition, this contribution contained single works by other medallists, many new to the site.

Hamo Thornycroft's James T. In addition to these medals the following sculptural works have been added: Conrad Dressler's untitled portrait disk , Albert Toft's untitled head of a bearded man , perhaps a prophet, Ellen Mary Rope's letterbox , Alfred Drury's Innocence , Mary Seton Watts's St. Cecilia , Elsie March' Portrait bust , and a copper tazza by an unknown artist. Allingham began or continued several major projects, the first of which concerns Edward Dalziel's illustrations of Dickens's Christmas stories. Jacqueline Banerjee created a new section in architecture on the remarkable Sarah Losh , which includes a biography and photo-essay on St Mary's Church, Wreay.

Thanks to Bob Morgan for sharing his photographs with us. Since then she has been working on the sculpture of Baron Marochetti, adding his effigies of Prince Albert and Queen Victoria at Frogmore Mausoleum, a drawing of the missing angel for Bellini's tomb in Paris, a medallion of his wife Camille , and a bas-relief portrait of his sons. Many thanks to Caroline Hedengren-Dillon for her photographs of these last three. But then back to the visual arts — Perkin's bust by Pomeroy, and commentaries on some more of Robert Freidus's photographs of important monuments in Highgate Cemetery: of the travelling menagerist George Wombwell ; the founder of the famous furniture store, John Maple ; the sculptor Alfred George Stevens ; the pugilist Tom Sayers ; and the physician Joseph Hodgson.

To these she added her own pictures of the Lendy Memorial in Sunbury-on-Thames, and Freidus's haunting picture of the Chothia monument in Brookwood Cemetery. Then, much more slowly than your webmaster, she has been formatting and adding commentaries to some of Pugin's secular and domestic designs, in one of the catalogues kindly given by the Fine Arts Society — from door grills for the Palace of Westminster , to bookcases and an incense boat. Andrzej Diniejko reviewed Chris R. The two-day conference, which attracted both Polish Studies and British Studies scholars, was devoted to reflection on various forms of presence of the works of Victorian writers and Victorianism as a model of culture in Polish cultural awareness and in the Polish literature of the second half of the nineteenth century and later periods.

Simon Cooke formatted and added links to Paul Goldman's introduction to the life and works of the illustrator Matthew James Lawless. David Trestini asks an interesting question about a decade-old undergraduate commentary about a poem by Christina Rossetti. Here's my response. Many thanks to Albert Hickson of Peterborough for sending in multiple suggestions and corrections of materials in the sculpture section. Later in the month Kathleen Diana Ravenhill Schoch pointed out some mistranscriptions of the signatures of her great-great-grandfather, Leonard Raven Hill.

Since arriving in London, your webmaster has photographed the remains of the exterior and interior of St Saviour's Church, Walton Place in Kightbridge, most of which has been converted to a theatre and other uses. Many thanks to Ms. Janine Gillion, who generously explained the history and recent conversion of the church. Allingham, who is off again lecturing on Dickens in Poland, created a series of a dozen illustrated essays on Sol Eytinge's illustrations for Dickens's Uncommercial Traveller and Additional Christmas Stories.

He and Andrzej Diniejko together reviewed Joseph P. Jordan's Dickens Novels as Verse. Following her essay on St John's Church, Kolkata , and some of its monuments, Jacqueline Banerjee's main work this month has been a two-part piece on the Prince of Wales's tour of India in , which brought out many good qualities in the future king.

She then spent some time formatting and illustrating very welcome reviews: another by Antoine Capet, of a Millais exhibition at the Tate, and one by Ellen Moody of Simon Heffer's High Minds. Many thanks to both contributors. The next review was her own, of the splendid catalogue of the William Burges exhibition in Cork, Searching for the New Jerusalem.

Then she put up and wrote about some lovely photographs of North Wales contributed by Bob Morgan, for which we opened a new section in our "Places" section. These started with Llandudno Pier , the longest pier in Wales. She added an essay to these pieces on Dinorwic Quarry and the Quarrymen's Lives. Simon Cooke added illustrations by Hugh Thomson to his new section on the artist-designer. The French-language magazine, Cycles , asked for and received permission to use one of our images.

Literary Criticism and Cultural Theory

As a result, we have been able to replace some older monochrome reproductions of Ruskin's drawings and watercolors with excellent color images and also to add several dozen new works. In addition, the site now has seventeen daguerreotypes either by Ruskin or in his collection. He also created a section on Byzantine architecture drawing upon Bannister Fletcher and Ruskin, and later in the month he created a similar section on Romanesque architecture and the Romanesque revival. Next, turning to illustrations, Landow drew upon the Hathi Trust digital library to add 79 of Sir Edwin Landseer's drawings and watercolors reproduced in a twelve-part article in the Art-Journal , after which, drawing upon his personal library, he added thirty-four of David and William Bell Scott's illustrations for Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress.

Landow put them online with a discussion of the pros and cons of the case. Allingham completed his work on E. Haslehust 's watercolors of Dickens-land, adding 15 of the artist's paintings to that artist's section, after which he added a dozen of F. Darley's illustrations to Dickens that included his usual combination of the text illustrated, detailed commentary, and comparative images by other artists.

Next he added more than a dozen illustrations of Dickens works by A. Dixon, beginning with a depiction of Miss Havisham tell Pip, "It's a bride cake. John Murray for their Titanic labours. It was on these terms that they bought the stories of Jules de la Madeleine, Flaubert's 'Madame Bovary,' etc. These facts are within my knowledge. We do not work in this way.

If the book succeeds, so much the better for the author, who makes francs out of every edition of copies. Flaubert, whose book is in its third edition, had come to us instead of to Messrs. Moral: English authors ought to go down on their knees and thank God that English publishers are not as other publishers. At least, not always! I have had great joy in Mr. Nowell Charles Smith's new and comprehensive edition of Wordsworth, published by Methuen in three volumes as majestic as Wordsworth himself at his most pontifical.

The price is fifteen shillings net, and having regard to the immense labour involved in such an edition, it is very cheap. I would sooner pay fifteen shillings for a real book like this than a guinea for the memoirs of any tin god that ever sat up at nights to keep a diary; yea, even though the average collection of memoirs will furnish material to light seven hundred pipes.

We have lately been much favoured with first-rate editions of poets. I mention Mr. George Sampson's amazing and not-to-be-sufficiently-lauded Blake. Smith's work is worthy to stand on the same shelf with these. A shining virtue of Mr. Smith's edition is that it embodies the main results of the researches and excavations not only of Professor Knight, but, more important, of the wonderful Mr. Hutchinson, whose contributions to the Academy , in days of yore, were the delight of Wordsworthians. Personally, I became a member of the order of Wordsworthians in the historic year , when Matthew Arnold's "Selections" were issued to the public at the price of half a crown.

The test of a Wordsworthian is the ability to read with pleasure every line that the poet wrote. I regret to say that, strictly, Matthew Arnold was not a perfect Wordsworthian; he confessed, with manly sincerity, that he could not read "Vaudracour and Julia" with pleasure. This was a pity and Matthew Arnold's loss. For a strict Wordsworthian, while utterly conserving his reverence for the most poetic of poets, can discover a keen ecstasy in the perusal of the unconsciously funny lines which Wordsworth was constantly perpetrating. And I would back myself to win the first prize in any competition for Wordsworth's funniest line with a quotation from "Vaudracour and Julia.

From his tenderest years Wordsworth succeeded in combining the virtues of Milton and of Punch in a manner that no other poet has approached. Thus, at the age of eighteen, he could write:. Which really is rather splendid for a boy. And he could immediately follow that, speaking of a family of swans, with:. Wordsworth richly atoned for his unconscious farcicalness by a multitude of single lines that, in their pregnant sublimity, attend the Wordsworthian like a shadow throughout his life, warning him continually when he is in danger of making a fool of himself.

Thus, whenever through mere idleness I begin to waste the irrecoverable moments of eternity, I always think of that masterly phrase from, I think, the "Prelude," but I will not be sure :. This line is a most convenient and effective stone to throw at one's languid friends. Finally let me hail Mr. Nowell Smith as a benefactor. A bad publishing season is now drawing to a close, and in the air are rumours of a crisis. Of course the fault is the author's. It goes without saying that the fault is the author's. In the first place, he will insist on producing mediocre novels.

For naturally the author is a novelist; only novelists count when crises loom. It appears that the publishers have been losing money over the six-shilling novel, and that they are not going to stand the loss any longer. It is stated that never in history were novels so atrociously mediocre as they are to-day. And in the second place, the author will insist on employing an Unspeakable Rascal entitled a literary agent, and the poor innocent lamb of a publisher is fleeced to the naked skin by this scoundrel every time the two meet. Already I have heard that one publisher, hitherto accustomed to the services of twenty gardeners at his country house, has been obliged to reduce the horticultural staff to eighteen.

Such is the publishers' explanation of the crisis. I shall keep my own explanation till the crisis is a little more advanced and ready to burst. In the meantime I should like to ask: How do people manage to range over the whole period of the novel's history and definitely decide that novels were never so bad as they are now? I am personally inclined to think that at no time has the average novel been so good as it is to-day. This view, by the way, is borne out by publishers' own advertisements, which abound in the word "masterpiece" quoted from infallible critics of great masterpieces!

Let any man who disagrees with me dare go to Mudie's and get out a few forgotten novels of thirty years ago and try to read them! I am widely acquainted with publishers and literary agents, and though I have often met publishers who have got the better of literary agents, I have never met a literary agent who has come out on top of a publisher. Such a literary agent is badly wanted. I have been looking for him for years. I know a number of authors who would join me in enriching that literary agent. The publishers are always talking about him. I seldom go into a publisher's office but that literary agent has just left gorged with illicit gold.

It irritates me that I cannot run across him. If I were a publisher, he would have been in prison ere now. Briefly, the manner in which certain prominent publishers, even clever ones, talk about literary agents is silly. Still, I am ready to believe that publishers have lost money over the six-shilling novel. I am acquainted with the details of several instances of such loss.

And in every case the loss has been the result of gambling on the part of the publisher. I do not hesitate to say that the terms offered in late years by some publishers to some popular favourites have been grotesquely inflated. Publishers compete among themselves, and then, when the moment comes for paying the gambler's penalty, they complain of having been swindled. Note that the losses of publishers are nearly always on the works of the idols of the crowd. They want the idol's name as an ornament to their lists, and they commit indiscretions in order to get it. Fantastic terms are never offered to the solid, regular, industrious, medium novelist.

And it is a surety that fantastic terms are never offered to the beginner. Ask, and learn. But though I admit that money has been lost, I do not think the losses have been heavy. After all, no idolized author and no diabolic agent can force a publisher to pay more than he really wants to pay.

And no diabolic agent, having once bitten a publisher, can persuade that publisher to hold out his generous hand to be bitten again. These are truisms. Lastly, I am quite sure that, out of books, a great deal more money has been made by publishers than by authors, and that this will always be so. The threatened crisis in publishing has nothing to do with the prices paid to authors, which on the whole are now fairly just very different from what they were twenty years ago, when authors had to accept whatever was condescendingly offered to them. And if a crisis does come, the people to suffer will happily be those who can best afford to suffer.

The publishing season—the bad publishing season—is now practically over, and publishers may go away for their holidays comforted by the fact that they will not begin to lose money again till the autumn. It only remains to be decided which is the novel of the season. Those interested in the question may expect it to be decided at any moment, either in the British Weekly or the Sphere.

I take up these journals with a thrill of anticipation. For my part, I am determined only to decide which is not the novel of the season. There are several novels which are not the novel of the season. Perhaps the chief of them is Mr. Booth's "The Cliff End," which counts among sundry successes to the score of Mr. Grant Richards. Everything has been done for it that reviewing can do, and it has sold, and it is an ingenious and giggling work, but not the novel of the season.

The reviews of "The Cliff End," almost unanimously laudatory, show in a bright light our national indifference to composition in art. Some reviewers, while stating that the story itself was a poor one, insisted that Mr. Booth is a born and accomplished story-teller. Story-tellers born and accomplished do not tell poor stories. A poor story is the work of a poor story-teller. And the story of "The Cliff End" is merely absurd. It is worse, if possible, than the story of Mr. Maxwell's "Vivien," which reviewers accepted. It would appear that with certain novels the story doesn't matter!

I really believe that composition, the foundation of all arts, including the art of fiction, is utterly unconsidered in England. Or if it is considered, it is painfully misunderstood. I remember how the panjandrums condescendingly pointed out the bad construction of Mr. Joseph Conrad's "Lord Jim," one of the most noble examples of fine composition in modern literature, and but slightly disfigured by a detail of clumsy machinery.

In "The Cliff End" there is simply no composition that is not clumsy and conventional. All that can be said of it is that you can't read a page, up to about page , without grinning. Unhappily Mr. Booth overestimated his stock of grins, which ran out untimely. The true art of fiction, however, is not chiefly connected with grinning, or with weeping. It consists, first and mainly, in a beautiful general composition.

But in Anglo-Saxon countries any writer who can induce both a grin and a tear on the same page, no matter how insolent his contempt for composition, is sure of that immortality which contemporaries can award. Another novel that is not the novel of the season is Mr. John Ayscough's "Marotz," about which much has been said.

I do not wish to labour this point. I trust that I make myself plain. I shall not pronounce upon Mr. Masefield's "Captain Margaret," because, though it has been splashed all over by trowelfuls of slabby and mortarish praise, it has real merits. Indeed, it has a chance of being the novel of the season. Masefield is not yet grown up. He is always trying to write "literature," and that is a great mistake. He should study the wisdom of Paul Verlaine:. Take literature and wring its neck.

I suppose that Mr. And yet, possibly, it will be the novel of the season after all, though unchosen. I will not labour this point, either. Any one read "The Blue Lagoon" yet? Some folk have read it, for it is in its sixth edition. But when I say any one, I mean some one, not mere folk. It might be worth looking into, "The Blue Lagoon. Robertson Nicoll and Shorter. In choosing "Confessio Medici" as the book of the season in general literature, Dr.

I would give much to prevent him from afflicting the intelligent when the solemn annual moment arrives for him to make the reputation of a novelist. I think I could read anything about German Colonial expansion. The subject may not appear to be attractive; but it is. The reason lies in the fact that one is always maliciously interested in the failures of pompous and conceited persons.

In the same way, one is conscious of disappointment that the navy pother has not blossomed into a naked scandal. A naked scandal would be a bad thing, and yet one feels cheated because it has not occurred. At least I do. And I am rather human. I can glut myself on German colonial expansion—a wondrous flower. I have just read with genuine avidity M. It is a very good book. Most of it does not deal with colonial expansion, but with the growth and organization of Germania in the United States and Brazil.

There is some delicious psychology in this part of the book. Hear the German Governor of Pennsylvania: "As for me, I consider that if the influence of the German colonist had been eliminated from Pennsylvania, Philadelphia would never have been anything but an ordinary American town like Boston, New York, Baltimore, or Chicago. Tonnelat gives a masterly and succinct account of the relations between Germans and native races in Africa particularly the Hereros. It is farcical, disastrous, piquant, and grotesque. The documentation is admirably done. What can you do but smile when you gather from a table that for the murder of seven Germans by natives fifteen capital punishments and one life-imprisonment were awarded; whereas, for the murder of five natives including a woman by Germans, the total punishment was six and a quarter years of prison.

In the amazing German Colonial Empire cost millions of marks. A high price to pay for a comic opera, even with real waterfalls! Tonnelat has combined sobriety and exactitude with an exciting readableness. In the month of August, when the book trade is supposed to be dead, but which, nevertheless, sees the publication of novels by Joseph Conrad and Marie Corelli if Joseph Conrad is one Pole, Marie Corelli is surely the other , I have had leisure to think upon the most curious of all the problems that affect the author: Who buys books?

Who really does buy books? We grumble at the lack of enterprise shown by booksellers. We are shocked that in the whole of Regent Street it is impossible to buy a new book. We shudder when, in crossing the virgin country of the suburbs, we travel for days and never see a single bookshop. But whose fault is it that bookshops are so few?

Are booksellers people who have a conscientious objection to selling books? Or is it that nobody wants to buy books? Personally, I extract some sort of a living—a dog's existence—from the sale of books with my name on the title-page. And I am acquainted with a few other individuals who perform the same feat. I am also acquainted with a large number of individuals who have no connexion with the manufacture or distribution of literature. And when I reflect upon the habits of this latter crowd, I am astonished that I or anybody else can succeed in paying rent out of what comes to the author from the sale of books.

I know scarcely a soul, I have scarcely ever met a soul, who can be said to make a habit of buying new books. I know a few souls who borrow books from Mudie's and elsewhere, and I recognize that their subscriptions yield me a trifle. But what a trifle! Do you know anybody who really buys new books? Have you ever heard tell of such a being? Of course, there are Franklinish and self-improving young men and conceivably women who buy cheap editions of works which the world will not willingly let die: the Temple Classics, Everyman's Library, the World's Classics, the Universal Library.

Such volumes are to be found in many refined and strenuous homes—oftener unopened than opened— but still there! But does this estimable practice aid the living author to send his children to school in decent clothes? He whom I am anxious to meet is the man who will not willingly let die the author who is not yet dead. No society for the prevention of the death of corpses will help me to pay my butcher's bill. I know that people buy motor-cars, for the newspapers are full of the dust of them. I know that they buy seats in railway carriages and theatres, and meals at restaurants, and cravats of the new colour, and shares in companies, for they talk about their purchases, and rise into ecstasies of praise or blame concerning them.

I want to learn about the people who buy new books—modest band who never praise nor blame, nor get excited over their acquisitions, preferring to keep silence, preferring to do good in secret! Let an enterprising inventor put a new tyre on the market, and every single purchaser will write to the Press and state that he has bought it and exactly what he thinks about it. Yet, though the purchasers of a fairly popular new book must be as numerous as the purchasers of a new tyre, not one of them ever "lets on" that he has purchased. I want some book-buyers to come forward and at any rate state that they have bought a book, with some account of the adventure.

I should then feel partly reassured. I should know by demonstration that a book-buyer did exist; whereas at present all I can do is to assume the existence of a book-buyer whom I have never seen, and whom nobody has ever seen. It seems to me that if a few book-buyers would kindly come forward and confess—with proper statistics—the result would be a few columns quite pleasant to read in the quietude of September. The mischief is that it will persist in talking about literature. Joseph Conrad's new book, "A Set of Six," in its four thousand two hundred and eighteenth issue, really calls for protest.

It owes an apology to Mr. Here we have a Pole who has taken the trouble to come from the ends of the earth to England, to learn to speak the English language, and to write it like a genius; and he is received in this grotesque fashion by the leading literary journal! In common with every paper in this country, it has learnt that the proper thing is to praise Mr. Conrad's work. Not to appreciate Mr.

Conrad's work at this time of day would amount to bad form. Conrad is not the kind of author whose work one is content to meet only in fugitive form," etc. For example: "It is too studiously chiselled and hammered-out for that. Imagine the effect of studiously chiselling a work and then hammering it out! Useful process! Conrad, having written a story, took it to Brooklands to get it run over by a motor-car.

Again: "His effects are studiously wrought, although —such is his mastery of literary art—they produce a swift and penetrating impression. But one would ask: Has it ever read the opening paragraph of "The Return," perhaps the most dazzling feat of impressionism in modern English? Conrad's work deals with the sea, considering that he has written "Lord Jim," "The Nigger of the Narcissus " "Typhoon," "Nostromo," and "The Mirror of the Sea," this regret shall be awarded the gold medal of the silly season. It ought to remember the responsibilities of its position, and ought not to entrust an important work of letters to some one whose most obvious characteristic is an exquisite and profound incompetence for criticism.

Conrad's major works. But in the mere use of English it shows an advance upon all his previous books. In some of his finest chapters there is scarcely a page without a phrase that no Englishman would have written, and in nearly every one of his books slight positive errors in the use of English are fairly common. In "A Set of Six" I have detected no error and extremely few questionable terms. The influence of his deep acquaintance with French is shown in the position of the adverb in "I saw again somebody in the porch. Nor would an Englishman be likely to write "that sort of adventures.

Conrad still maintains his preference for indirect narrative through the mouths of persons who witnessed the events to be described. I dare say that he would justify the device with great skill and convincingness. But it undoubtedly gives an effect of clumsiness. The first story in the volume, "Gaspar Ruiz," is a striking instance of complicated narrative machinery.

This peculiarity also detracts from the realistic authority of the work. For by the time you have got to the end of "A Set of Six" you have met a whole series of men who all talk just as well as Mr. Conrad writes, and upon calm reflection the existence of a whole series of such men must seem to you very improbable. The best pages in the book are those devoted to the ironical contemplation of a young lady anarchist.

They are tremendous. The death of Professor Churton Collins appears to have been attended by painful circumstances, and one may be permitted to regret the disappearance from the literary arena of this vigorous pundit. He had an agreeable face, with pendant hair and the chin of a fighter.

His industry must have been terrific, and personally I can forgive anything to him who consistently and violently works. He had also acquired much learning. Indeed, I should suppose that on the subject of literature he was the most learned man in Britain. Unfortunately, he was quite bereft of original taste. The root of the matter was not in him. A man may heap up facts and facts on a given topic, and assort and label them, and have the trick of producing any particular fact at an instant's notice, and yet, despite all his efforts and honest toil, rest hopelessly among the profane.

Churton Collins was such a man. He had no artistic feeling. Apart from the display of learning, which is always pleasant to the man of letters, his essays were arid and tedious. I never heard him lecture, but should imagine that he was an ideal University Extension lecturer. I do not mean this to be in the least complimentary to him as a critic. His book, "Illustrations Tennyson," was an entirely sterile exercise proving on every page that the author had no real perceptions about literature. It simply made creative artists laugh. They knew. His more recent book on modern tendencies displayed in an acute degree the characteristic inability of the typical professor to toddle alone when released from the leading-strings of tradition.

I fear that most of our professors are in a similar fix. In my pensive moments I have sometimes yearned to know as many facts about literature as Professor Saintsbury knows, though he did once, I am told, state that "Wuthering Heights" was written by Charlotte. That must have been a sadly shocking day for Mr. Clement Shorter! I have found his Liebig "History of French Literature" very useful; it has never failed to inform me what I ought to think about the giants of the past.

More important, Professor Saintsbury's critical introductions to the whole series of Dent's English edition of Balzac are startlingly just. Over and over again he hits the nail on the head and spares his finger. I have never understood by what magic he came to accomplish these prefaces. For the root of the matter is no more in Professor Saintsbury than it was in Churton Collins.

He has not comprehended what he was talking about. The proof—his style and his occasional pronouncements on questions as to which he has been quite free to make up his mind all by himself! I remember one evening discussing the talents of a certain orchestral conductor, who also played the violin. I was talking to a member of his orchestra, a very genuine artist. We agreed that he had conducted badly; but, I said in his defence, "Anyhow his intentions are good. You must admit that he has a feeling for music. I recall this episode in connexion with Professor Saintsbury.

No one who had any feeling for literature could possibly put down the —— style that Professor Saintsbury commits. His pen could not be brought to write it. Professor Saintsbury may be as loudly positive as he likes—his style is always quietly whispering: "Don't listen. Such an ordinance would at any rate ensure their dignity. Yet another example is Professor Walter Raleigh. Fifty per cent. But I am not. It has been demonstrated to me satisfactorily, by contact with Liverpool people, that Professor Raleigh's personal influence at that university in certain ways made for righteousness.

Nevertheless, Professor Raleigh has himself demonstrated to me that, wherever the root of the matter may be, it is not in him. One must remember that he is young, and that his underived opinions are therefore less likely to clash with the authoritative opinions of living creative artists on their contemporaries and predecessors than if he were of the same generation as the Collinses and the Saintsburys. But wait a few years. Wait until something genuinely new and original comes along and you will see what you will see. If he wished not to ruin his reputation among artists, among people who really create things, he ought not to have published his books on "Style" and on "Shakespere.

For they are as hollow as a drum and as unoriginal as a bride-cake: nothing but vacuity with an icing of phrases. I am brought back again to the anecdote of the musician. No one who had the least glimmering of an individual vision of what style truly is could possibly have tolerated the too fearfully ingenious mess of words that Professor Raleigh courageously calls a book on "Style. It may not be generally known and I do not state it as a truth that Professor Raleigh is a distant connexion of the celebrated family of Pains, pyrotechnicians. I would begin to go to the Empire again if I could see on the programme: " Professor Raleigh, in his unique prestidigitatory performance with words.

It would be amusing. But it would have no connexion with literature. It was the commercial genius of Mr. Hall Caine that invented the idea of publishing important novels during the "off" season. Miss Marie Corelli, by a sure instinct, followed suit. And now all sorts of stars, from genuine artists to mere successful artisans, take care to publish in the off season. Humphry Ward, and Miss Marie Corelli. At this rate the autumn will soon become the slack time; August will burn and throb with a six-shilling activity; publishers' clerks will form a union; and the Rt.

Smith, M. That a considerable social importance still attaches to the publication of a novel by Mrs. Humphry Ward may be judged from the fact that the Manchester Guardian specially reviewed the book on its leader page. This strange phenomenon deserves to be studied, because the Manchester Guardian 's reviewing easily surpasses that of any other daily paper, except, possibly, the Times in its Literary Supplement. The Guardian relies on mere, sheer intellectual power, and as a rule it does not respect persons.

Its theatrical critics, for example, take joy in speaking the exact truth—never whispered in London—concerning the mandarins of the stage. Now it is remarkable that the only strictly first-class morning daily in these isles should have printed the Guardian 's review of "Diana Mallory" signed "B.

I do not object to Mrs. Humphry Ward being reviewed with splendid prominence. I am quite willing to concede that a new book from her constitutes the matter of a piece of news, since it undoubtedly interests a large number of respectable and correct persons. A novel by Miss Marie Corelli, however, constitutes the matter of a greater piece of news; yet I have seen no review of "Holy Orders," even in a corner, in the Guardian.

Surely the Guardian was not prevented from dealing faithfully with "Holy Orders" by the fact that it received no review copy, or by the fact that Miss Corelli desired no review. Its news department in general is conducted without reference to the desires of Miss Marie Corelli, and it does not usually boggle at an expenditure of four-and-sixpence. Why, then, Mrs. Humphry Ward being reviewed specially, is not Miss Marie Corelli reviewed specially? If the answer be that Mrs. Humphry Ward's novels are better, as literature, than Miss Corelli's, I submit that the answer is insufficient, and lacking in Manchester sincerity.

Let me duly respect Mrs. Humphry Ward. She knows her business. She is an expert in narrative. She can dress up even the silliest incidents of sentimental fiction—such as that in which the virgin heroine, in company with a young man, misses the last train home see "Helbeck of Bannisdale" —in a costume of plausibility. She is a conscientious worker. She does not make a spectacle of herself in illustrated interviews. Even in agitating against votes for women she can maintain her dignity.

She would be an ideal President of the Authors' Society. But, then, similar remarks apply, say, to Mr. Norris is as accomplished an expert as Mrs. He is in possession of a much better style. He has humour. He is much more true to life. He has never compromised the dignity of his vocation. Nevertheless, the prospect of the Guardian reviewing Mr. Norris on its leader page is remote, for the reason that though he pleases respectable and correct persons, he does not please nearly so many respectable and correct persons as does Mrs.

If anybody has a right to the leader page of our unique daily, Mrs. Humphry Ward is that body. My objection to the phenomenon is that the Guardian falsified its item of news. It deliberately gave the impression that a serious work of art had appeared in "Diana Mallory. It did know better. If our unique daily is to yield to the snobbishness which ranks Mrs. Humphry Ward among genuine artists, where among dailies are we to look for the shadow of a great rock?

Humphry Ward's novels are praise-worthy as being sincerely and skilfully done, but they are not works of art. They are possibly the best stuff now being swallowed by the uneducated public; and they deal with the governing classes; and when you have said that you have said all. Nothing truly serious can happen in them. It is all make-believe. No real danger of the truth about life! I should think not, indeed! The fearful quandary in which the editor of Harper's found himself with "Jude the Obscure" was a lesson to all Anglo-Saxon editors for ever more!

Humphry Ward has never got nearer to life than, for instance, "Rita" has got—nor so near! Gladstone, a thoroughly bad judge of literature, made her reputation, and not on a post card, either! Gladstone had no sense of humour—at any rate when he ventured into literature. Nor has Mrs. If she had she would not concoct those excruciating heroines of hers.

She probably does not know that her heroines are capable of rousing temperaments such as my own to ecstasies of homicidal fury. Moreover, in literature all girls named Diana are insupportable. Look at Diana Vernon, beloved of Mr. Andrew Lang, I believe! What a creature! Imagine living with her! You can't! Look at Diana of the Crossways. Why did Diana of the Crossways marry? Nobody can say—unless the answer is that she was a ridiculous ninny. Would Anne Elliot have made such an inexplicable fool of herself?

Spaces of the Sacred and Profane: Dickens, Trollope, and the Victorian Cathedral Town
Spaces of the Sacred and Profane: Dickens, Trollope, and the Victorian Cathedral Town
Spaces of the Sacred and Profane: Dickens, Trollope, and the Victorian Cathedral Town
Spaces of the Sacred and Profane: Dickens, Trollope, and the Victorian Cathedral Town
Spaces of the Sacred and Profane: Dickens, Trollope, and the Victorian Cathedral Town
Spaces of the Sacred and Profane: Dickens, Trollope, and the Victorian Cathedral Town
Spaces of the Sacred and Profane: Dickens, Trollope, and the Victorian Cathedral Town
Spaces of the Sacred and Profane: Dickens, Trollope, and the Victorian Cathedral Town
Spaces of the Sacred and Profane: Dickens, Trollope, and the Victorian Cathedral Town

Related Spaces of the Sacred and Profane: Dickens, Trollope, and the Victorian Cathedral Town

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