The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah

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The Sunnah -- The Soul of Sufism - muslimcanada. Ibn Qayyim, Al fawaid, p. Every house that once was filled with joy will be faced with examples and each one of you is a guest and his money is a loan; the guest will travel and the loan will be repaid. Traditional Islamic thought and Sufism. For instance, much Sufi poetry refers to intoxication, which Islam expressly forbids. This usage of indirect language and the existence of interpretations by people who had no training in Islam or Sufism led to doubts being cast over the validity of Sufism as a part of Islam.

According to Sufis, tassawuf means unbounded love of Allah and selfless service of His creation under Shariat. Ibn Taymiyya the Sufi Shaikh - Sunnah. For this reason, like other Islamic sciences, it appeared in the Islamic 2nd and 3rd centuries as a branch of knowledge with method. Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri d. He learned various branches of traditional Islamic religious sciences in his home town of Tus, Gurgan and Nishapur in the northern part of Iran.

He was also involved in Sufi practices from an early age. Being recognized by Nizam…. Sunnah: Accepted by Sufis? By al-Haafidh Ibn Katheer. It has greatly affected the beliefs of the Muslims and has diverted it from its true course, which was laid down in the Noble Qur aan and the pure Sunnah. I am a salafi - Bibliothek der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.

In Sufism, the word annihilation refers to the mind giving no credence to. There is no denial of the outward existence, only the negation of any reality other than the Only True Reality That which is left when all else is gone. According to the Islamic teachings, the latter is meant to serve as a reminder of God's immanence rather than being a sign of one's divinity or alternatively imposing a limitation on God's transcendent nature.

Attribution of divinity to a created entity, shirk , is considered a denial of the truth of God and thus a major sin. Associating others with God is known as shirk and is the antithesis of Tawhid. It is usually but not always in the form of idolatry and supplicating to others than Allah, or believing that they hold the same attributes as him in an equal or lesser degree.

Shirk is divided into two categories:. Greater Shirk consists of the above-mentioned deeds. A person commits lesser shirk Shirk-al-Asghar or hidden polytheism when he claims to believe in God but his thoughts and actions do not reflect his belief. There are also minor forms of Shirk, they must be avoided as well; these include committing a good deed to show off, making an oath in the name of anyone except God.

Within Islam, shirk is an unforgivable crime; God may forgive any sin if one dies in that state except for committing shirk, repentance is required for its forgiveness. His quotations contain the first rational proofs among Muslims of the Unity of God. Ali states that "God is One" means that God is away from likeness and numeration and he is not divisible even in imagination. The first step of religion is to accept, understand and realize him as the Lord The correct form of belief in his unity is to realize that he is so absolutely pure and above nature that nothing can be added to or subtracted from his being.

That is, one should realize that there is no difference between his person and his attributes, and his attributes should not be differentiated or distinguished from his person. Vincent J. Cornell, a scholar of Islamic studies quotes the following statement from Ali:. To know God is to know his oneness. To say that God is one has four meanings: two of them are false and two are correct.

As for the two meanings that are false, one is that a person should say "God is one" and be thinking of a number and counting. This is false because that which has no second cannot enter into the category of number. Do you not see that those who say that God is a third of a trinity fall into this infidelity? Another meaning is to say, "So-and-So is one of his people", namely, a species of this genus or a member of this species. This meaning is also false when applied to God, because it implies likening something to God, whereas God is above all likeness.

As to the two meanings that are correct when applied to God, one is that it should be said that "God is one" in the sense that there is no likeness to him among things. Another is to say that "God is one" in the sense that there is no multiplicity or division conceivable in Him, neither outwardly, nor in the mind, nor in the imagination. God alone possesses such a unity. Theologians usually use reason and deduction to prove the existence, unity and oneness of God. They use a teleological argument for the existence of God as a creator based on perceived evidence of order, purpose, design, or direction—or some combination of these—in nature.

Teleology is the supposition that there is a purpose or directive principle in the works and processes of nature. Another argument which is used frequently by theologians is Reductio ad absurdum.

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They use it instead of positive arguments as a more efficient way to reject the ideas of opponents. Against the polytheism of pre-Islamic Arabia , the Qur'an argues that the knowledge of God as the creator of everything rules out the possibility of lesser gods since these beings must be themselves created. For the Qur'an, God is an immanent and transcendent deity who actively creates, maintains and destroys the universe. The reality of God as the ultimate cause of things is the belief that God is veiled from human understanding because of the secondary causes and contingent realities of things in the world.

The Qur'an states that God's signals are so near and yet so far, demanding that its students listen to what it has to say with humility Sura , Sura The Qur'an draws attention to certain observable facts, to present them as "reminders" of God instead of providing lengthy "theological" proofs for the existence and unity of God.

Ash'ari theologians rejected cause and effect in essence, but accepted it as something that facilitates humankind's investigation and comprehension of natural processes. These medieval scholars argued that nature was composed of uniform atoms that were "re-created" at every instant by God.


The laws of nature were only the customary sequence of apparent causes customs of God , the ultimate cause of each accident being God himself. An ontological argument for the existence of God was first proposed by Avicenna in the Metaphysics section of The Book of Healing [29] [30] Other forms of the argument also appear in Avicenna's other works, and this argument became known as the Proof of the Truthful. Avicenna initiated a full-fledged inquiry into the question of being , in which he distinguished between essence Mahiat and existence Wujud.

He argued that the fact of existence can not be inferred from or accounted for by the essence of existing things and that form and matter by themselves cannot interact and originate the movement of the universe or the progressive actualization of existing things. Existence must, therefore, be due to an agent-cause that necessitates, imparts, gives, or adds existence to an essence. To do so, the cause must be an existing thing and coexist with its effect. This was the first attempt at using the method of a priori proof , which utilizes intuition and reason alone. Avicenna's proof of God's existence is unique in that it can be classified as both a cosmological argument and an ontological argument.

The proof is also "cosmological insofar as most of it is taken up with arguing that contingent existents cannot stand alone and must end up in a Necessary Existent". According to Avicenna, the universe consists of a chain of actual beings, each giving existence to the one below it and responsible for the existence of the rest of the chain below.

Because an actual infinite is deemed impossible by Avicenna, this chain as a whole must terminate in a being that is wholly simple and one, whose essence is its very existence, and therefore is self-sufficient and not in need of something else to give it existence. Because its existence is not contingent on or necessitated by something else but is necessary and eternal in itself, it satisfies the condition of being the necessitating cause of the entire chain that constitutes the eternal world of contingent existing things.

There is a gradual multiplication of beings through a timeless emanation from God as a result of his self-knowledge. The Qur'an argues that there can be no multiple sources of divine sovereignty since "behold, each god would have taken away what [each] had created, And some would have Lorded it over others! The Qur'an in verse states: "If there were numerous gods instead of one, [the heavens and the earth] would be in a sorry state".

Later Muslim theologians elaborated on this verse saying that the existence of at least two gods would inevitably arise between them, at one time or another, a conflict of wills. Since two contrary wills could not possibly be realized at the same time, one of them must admit himself powerless in that particular instance. On the other hand, a powerless being can not by definition be a god. Therefore, the possibility of having more than one god is ruled out.

The Qur'an argues that human beings have an instinctive distaste for polytheism : At times of crisis, for example, even the idolaters forget the false deities and call upon the one true God for help. As soon as they are relieved from the danger, they however start associating other beings with God. Next, the Qur'an argues that polytheism takes away from human dignity: God has honored human beings and given them charge of the physical world, and yet they disgrace their position in the world by worshipping what they carve out with their own hands. Lastly, the Qur'an argues that monotheism is not a later discovery made by the human race, but rather there is the combined evidence of the prophetic call for monotheism throughout human history starting from Adam.

The Qur'an suggests several causes for deviation from monotheism to polytheism: Great temporal power, regarded by the holder and his subjects as 'absolute' — may lead the holder to think that he is God-like; such claims were commonly forced upon, and accepted by, those who were subject to the ruler. Also, certain natural phenomena such as the sun, the moon and the stars inspire feelings of awe, wonder or admiration that could lead some to regard these celestial bodies as deities.

Another reason for deviation from monotheism is when one becomes a slave to his or her base desires and passions. In seeking to always satisfy the desires, he or she may commit a kind of polytheism. Understanding of the meaning of Tawhid is one of the most controversial issues among Muslims. Islamic scholars have different approaches toward understanding it, comprising textualistic approach , theological approach , philosophical approach and Sufism and Irfani approach. These different approaches lead to different and in some cases opposite understanding of the issue.

The Textualistists by reason of their conception of the divine Attributes, came to represent the divinity as a complex of names and qualifications alongside the divine essence itself.

Harms of the Tabloid Culture in Light of the Qur`aan and Authentic Sunnah Part 1

The Athari methodology of textual interpretation is to avoid delving into extensive theological speculation. Certain theologians use the term Tawhid in a much broader meaning to denote the totality of discussion of God, his existence and his various attributes. Others go yet further and use the term to ultimately represent the totality of the "principles of religion". In its current usage, the expressions "Tawhid" or "knowledge of Tawhid" are sometimes used as an equivalent for the whole Kalam, the Islamic theology.

According to Sunni Islam, the orthodox understanding of theology is taken directly from the teachings of Muhammad with the understanding and methodology of his companions, sourced directly from the revealed scripture the Qur'an ; being the main information source for understanding the oneness of God in Islam. All Muslim authorities maintain that a true understanding of God is impossible unless He introduces Himself due to the fact that God is beyond the range of human vision and senses. According to this view, the fundamental message of all of the prophets is: "There is no god worthy of worship except Allah avoiding the false gods as stated in Surah hud.

This is also evident on the hadith of Miraj described in the Quran as well! The Mu'tazilis liked to call themselves the men of the tawhid ahl al-tawhid. God is unique, nothing is like him; he is neither body, nor individual, nor substance, nor accident. He is beyond time. He cannot dwell in a place or within a being; he is not the object of any creatural attribute or qualification. He is neither conditioned nor determined, neither engendered nor engendering. My slave does not draw close to Me with anything more loved by Me than the religious duties that I have enjoined on him, and My slave continues to draw close to Me with supererogatory naafil acts, so that I will love him.

When I love him, I am his hearing with which he hears, his seeing with which he sees, his hand with which he strikes and his foot with which he walks. Were he to ask [something] of Me, I would surely give it to him, and were he to ask Me for refuge, I would surely grant him it.

Thats a good explanation but why there is only detail about Sufism. Can u please give the same for sunni muslims. It means Islam is one without these sufis and sunnis disputes right? Suffism is a grave matter and has to explained in detail. I am not advances in this field so inshalah I'll will post the answer from a scholar. This person in above long lost has no idea what they are talking about.

They are taking verses from Qur'an out if context and making it say whatever they want it to say. Lets look at the scholars of four school of thought say about Sufism. Question is, were they promoting misguidance and polytheism? If so then what good can we get from their books? With more and more interest being shown in Sufism by Muslims and non Muslims alike, we investigate whether or not Sufism is part and parcel of Islam or a Myth introduced by outsiders into Islam to corrupt Islamic beliefs.

One thing is for certain that the term 'Sufism' did not exist in the time of the Prophet S. W or during the time of the First Caliphs but it was used during the period of the four great Imams of Madhabs. Therefore, we shall examine what the four Imams had to say about the Sufi people and their spiritual knowledge or Islamic Mysticism. Imam Abu Hanifa R. A said "If it were not for two years, I would have perished. A and I acquired the spiritual knowledge that made me a knower in the Way i.

A , who received it from Hazrat Shibli R. A , who received it from Hazrat Sari as-Saqati R. A , who received it from Hazrat Maruf al-Kharqi R. A , who received it from Hazrat Dawud at-Tai R. A , who received the knowledge, both the external and internal, from Imam Abu Hanifa R. A , who supported the Sufi spiritual path. Imam Malik R.

A said, "Whoever studies jurisprudence and does not study Sufism will be corrupted. Whoever studies Sufism and does not study Jurisprudence will become a heretic. Whoever combines both will reach the truth. Imam Shafi R. A said, " I accompanied the Sufi people and I received from them three kinds of knowledge:.

Imam Ahmed R. A advising his son said, " O my son you have to sit with the Sufis, because they are like a fountain of knowledge. They recite the remembrance of Allah S.

T in their hearts. They are ascetics and they have the most spiritual power. This, then, is the opinion of the four great Imams of Madhab about the Sufis and indeed they themselves were Sufis in their own rights.

The Reality of Sufism: In the Light of the Qur'aan & Sunnah

But what about the generations after the four Imams, did they accept Sufism or did they discover something objectionable about Sufism. Imam Ghazali R. Their conduct is the best of conduct. Their way is the best of ways. Their manners are the most sanctified. They have purified their hearts from other than Allah and they have made them as pathways for rivers to run receiving knowledge of the Divine Presence. So far, all the above mentioned are Imams that the Sunni Muslims i.

The Reality Of Sufism In Light Of The Qur’aan And The Sunnah

What do they have to say about Sufis? Ibn Taymiyah, who deviated from the Ahle Sunnat Jamaat and whom the Salafis and Wahhabis take as their Imam, has said, "Sufism is the science of realities and states of experience.

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A Sufi is that person who purifies himself from everything which distracts him from the remembrance of Allah S. The Sufi is so filled with knowledge of the heart and knowledge of the mind, that the value of gold and stones will be equal to him. Sufism safeguards the precious meaning and leaves behind the call of fame and vanity to reach the state of truthfulness. The best of humans after the Prophets are the truthful ones, as Allah S. T mentioned them in the Holy Quran, 'All who obey Allah and the Messenger are in the company of those on whom is grace of Allah: the Prophets, the sincere lovers of truth Siddiqin , the Martyrs and the righteous.

Among them you will find the foremost in nearness by virtue of their striving and some of them are among the People of the Right Hand. Ibn Taymiyya has praised Sufis and Sufi practices in many of his books. He says, "We can witness the greatness of the people of Sufism in the eyes of the earliest generations of Muslims by what has been mentioned by Sufyan ath-Thawri, one of the greatest Imams in the 2nd century and one of the foremost legal scholars. He said, 'If it had not been for Abu Hisham as-Sufi, I would never have perceived the action of the subtle forms of hypocrisy in the self.

Moving on to the Wahhabi leader Ibn Abdul Wahhab, whose followers we generally know as Wahhabis, and his views on Sufis. His son Abd Allah says, "My father and I do not deny or criticise the science of Sufism, but on the contrary we support it because it purifies the external and the internal of the hidden sins which are related to the heart and the outward form. Even though the individual might externally be on the right way, internally he might be on the wrong way.

Sufism is necessary to correct it. Coming on now to the religious "reformers" of this century, we see that they all praised and agreed with Sufism, however, the followers of these reformers are under the dilution that their leaders denounced Sufism as being out of Islam. Muhammad Abduh said, "Sufism appeared in the 1st century of Islam and it received tremendous honour. It purified the self, straightened the conduct and gave knowledge to people from the wisdom and secrets of the Divine Presence.

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Rashid Rida said, "Sufism, was a unique pillar from the pillars of the religion. Its purpose was to purify the self and to take account of one's daily behaviour and to raise the people to a high station of spirituality. W , in repentance from their sins and in avoidance of every disobedience to Allah, Almighty and Exalted. Their guides encourage them to move in the way of perfect Love of Allah. W , where one absents oneself for their sake and one is annihilated from anything other than them.

The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah
The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah
The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah
The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah
The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah
The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah
The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah
The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah The Reality of Sufism: In Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah

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