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Forgery in Christianity
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Signature Forgery. Statute Of Limitation Forgery. Information About Forgery In Christianity If you have a document where the authenticity is in question I can help you. It may have been a forgery, but it was "probably what happened anyway By William Deborah's Blog about leagues Farmer"s Almanac Roget"s Thesaurus celebrity forgery Comprehensive search of research and teaching Chronology of Christianity I have been reading Robert M.
Occasionally Price contextualizes some of the books he examines with discussions of theories and results of biblical scholarship. Price appeals here to an article by Richard J.
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Price accedes that the papyrus on which Judas is written is genuinely ancient and, I might add, it was carbon-dated by the National Geographic Society to between and C. He concludes the paper on a conciliatory note, despite the severity of the accusation: "The Gospel of Judas is probably a hoax, and all the writings in it of recent authorship. These writings were prepared in our time, on some old papyrus leaves, probably from a palimpsest, without a binding. There is no cause for rebuke. One of our colleagues has created great excitement; he is a jolly fellow and has done us all a favor.
It is impossible to establish the existence of an historical charactereven as an impostor. For such a one the two witnesses, astronomical mythology and gnosticism, completely prove an alibi. The Christ is a popular lay-figure that never lived, and a lay-figure of Pagan origin; a lay-figure that was once the Ram and afterwards the Fish; a lay-figure that in human form was the portrait and image of a dozen different gods - Gerald Massey The Fish Symbol Lucifer…is another alchemical reference.
El-Khadr has been exalted to divine status in Sufic circles - B. In these books Jesus was fifty when he died. This indicates that that Crucifixion under Pilate was a fiction - J. Mendum Revelations of the Anti-Christ Persecutions Gibbon doubts whether Nero persecuted Christians at all; and conjectures that Tacitus may have confounded them with a pernicious sect of Jews called Galileans, who were determined rebels, and were punished by Nero - J. He was the apostolic secretary to seven Popes - J. This has to do with the passage of the new moon to full moon. Manna From Heaven Apparently the Hebrew manna represents the Egyptian tahen which was given to the manes for food in the wilderness of Amenta…Wafers made of tahen were also eaten sacramentally as food of heaven in the Osirian Eucharist — Gerald Massey Ladder to Heaven From the Pyramid Texts we learn that at a time when man believed that it was necessary to have a ladder to ascend into heaven from the Earth, Horus was regarded as the god of the ladder…Sometimes Ra held one side of the ladder whilst Horus held the other, and sometimes the supporters were Horus and Set, but even so the deceased seem to have had difficulty in ascending it, for we read that Horus had to give him a push upwards with his two fingers — E.
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Matthew was, of course, an apostle, as was John, but neither Luke nor Mark were named in the original twelve. Thomas, on the other hand, was one of the original apostles and yet the Gospel in his name was excluded - Laurence Gardner The Secret Keepers …the opening verses of Genesis were composed in the sixth century B. But from where would such ancient genealogical records have been obtained? Who would have recorded and maintained the patriarchal lineage through so many centuries?
The gardens, halls, warfare, altars, sacrifices, marriage and family life were the same - The Priesthood of the Illes The Old Testament Of the works of the Old Testament neither the Psalms, nor the proverbs, nor the so-called Preacher, nor the Book of Wisdom, can be connected with the historical kings David or Solomon, whose names they bear, and the prophet Daniel is just such a fictitious personality as the Enoch and the Ezra of the Apocalypses known under their names - Arthur Dewes The Christ Myth …the so-called Five Books of Moses are the literary product of an age much later than the one in which Moses is supposed to have lived - ibid Early Copies of some individual books of the Old Testament, in Hebrew and dating from the sixth century AD, were discovered stored in the Cairo synagogue during the late nineteenth century.
The High Priest of Jerusalem sent seventy-two elders to Alexandria, six scholars from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, together with an official copy of the Pentateuch. They worked for seventy-two days to produce the final copy of the Pentateuch in Greek. This text was originated in the second century AD after a council had been assembled at Jamnia, a small town near Jaffa, in AD At Jamnia the council agreed to the form and content of the Old Testament — Moustafa Gadalla Historical Deception …tradition has it that Ptolemy I Soter also commissioned seventy-two erudite Jewish scholars to translate the Old Testament into Greek, a version now known as the Septuagint, which was to serve as the basis for future Latin translations - Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval Talisman Nero, the Alleged Persecutor of Christians Gibbon doubts whether Nero persecuted Christians at all; and conjectures that Tacitus may have confounded them with a pernicious sect of Jews called Galileans, who were determined rebels, and were punished by Nero - J.
Eusebius made a list of Jewish and Pagan references to Christianity, but Tacitus is not mentioned by him. In fact, the passage in question was not quoted by any Christian writer before the fifteenth century — John G. The black stone which the Musulmans kiss with so much devotion to this day, is The walls of the great mosque of Kufah, built on the foundation of an ancient Pyrea or temple of fire, are filled with figures of planet artistically engraved - Dupuis The Origin of all Religious Worship Baal and Dionysus The larger cluster of themes in biblical narratives, the Baal epic and the myth of Dionysus have roots in the ancient Mesopotamian traditions attached to the Sumerian goddess Inanna and the Babylonian Ishtar with their lovers Dumuzi and Tammuz Some of the most stable elements in the myth involve themes of a human who becomes divine in a process involving death and resurrection.
The central figure descends into the realm of the dead for three days before awakening to a new life The resurrection of the dead from the grave imitates the resurrection of the goddess and her lover - Professor Thomas L.
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Thompson The Messiah Myth Farley Edition. Constantin von Tischendorf , a brilliant and pious German biblical scholar When the New Testament and the Sinai Bible is compared with a modern-day New Testament, a staggering 14, editorial alterations can be indentified. These amendments can be recognized by a simple comparative exercise that anybody can and should do. Serious study of Christian origins must emanate from the Sinai Bible's version of the New Testament, not modern editions Modern Bibles are five times removes in translation from early editions, and disputes rage between translators over variant interpretations of more than 5, ancient words Modern-day versions of the Gospel of Luke have a staggering 10, more words than the same Gospel in the Sinai Bible Hymn to Zeus Extracts from the Hymn to Zeus, written by Greek philosopher Cleanthes c.
Quotes from the semi-legendary Greek poet Epimenides 7th or 6th century BC are applied to the lips of Jesus Christ, and seven passages from the curious Ode of Jupiter c. Flavius Constantinus After the death of his father in , Constantine became king of Britain, Gaul, and Spain, and then, after a series of victorious battles, Emperor of the Roman Empire. Christian historians give little or no hint of the turmoil of the times and suspend Constantine in the air, free of all human events happening around him. In truth, one of Constantine's main problems was the uncontrollable disorder amongst presbyters and their belief in numerous gods From Constantine's point of view, there were several factions that needed satisfying, and he set out to develop an all-embracing religion during a period of irreverent confusion.
In an age of crass ignorance, with nine-tenths of the peoples of Europe illiterate, stabilizing religious splinter groups was only one of Constantine's problems. The smooth generalization. Pecci Edition.
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Because of his Sun worship, he instructed Eusebius to convene the first of three sittings on the summer solstice, 21 June Catholic Encyclopedia. New Edition. Article in Nexus Magazine: Vol. To involve British factions, he ruled that the name for the great Druid god, Hesus, be joined with the Eastern Savior-god, Krishna Krishna is Sanskrit for Christ , and then Hesus Krishna would be the official name of the new Roman god Apollonius of Tyana The Latinized name for Apollonius is Paulus Julius Caesar was hailed as "God made manifest and universal Saviour of human life," and his successor Augustus was called the "ancestral God and Saviour of the whole human race" Man and his Gods, Homer Smith.
Emperor Nero Paul dropped the definite article, calling Jesus simply Christos, turning it into a name — Jesus Christ — probably to emphasize his uniqueness and distance him further from the Jewish interpretation of his mission…Many authorities argue that…Paul was influenced by the pagan mystery cults of Rome, and that he freely borrowed concepts from them — Picknettt and Prince Masks of Christ Paltry is the Evidence There are not even any archaeological remains to compensate for the relative lack of written records.
Unsurprisingly, modern Israel is a magnet for Christian tourism. What devotee of Christ would not want to walk in his footsteps by the Sea of Galilee or retrace the terrible journey through Jerusalem to Golgotha, the Place of the Skull, where he died on the cross? Yet of the many individual sites on the Christian tourist map — such as the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem — in all cases the link is merely traditional. Sadly…there is no hard evidence that any of these particular places was actually associated with Jesus. They saw themselves as a sect within Judaism, not a breakaway movement, observing the Jewish Law and worshipping at the Jerusalem Temple.
When Mark was grouped together with the other three Gospels, these lacunae were relatively inconsequential. Both insist on his divine conception but then blithely undermine their own claim by providing evidence of his very moral descent. These writers were clearly desperate to have it both ways. Ehrman investigates how the Gospels, works of Paul, and story of Jesus came to be written down.
He shows how the New Testament evolved and how it suffered innumerable changes through the years. He covers the few original manuscripts such as the Codex Sinaiticus, and introduces us to the scribes, collators, and bible scholars responsible for the discovery, compilation, and publication of early versions of the New Testament. Ehrman also provides his readers with the facts on how many of the best loved stories and passages in the Gospels were interpolated at late dates by unknown scribes.
He clearly outlines the reasons why key passages were altered, deleted, or misinterpreted - Michael Tsarion The popular perception of the Bible as a divinely perfect book receives scant support from Ehrman, who sees in Holy Writ ample evidence of human fallibility and ecclesiastical politics. Though himself schooled in evangelical literalism, Ehrman has come to regard his earlier faith in the inerrant inspiration of the Bible as misguided, given that the original texts have disappeared and that the extant texts available do not agree with one another.
Most of the textual discrepancies, Ehrman acknowledges, matter little, but some do profoundly affect religious doctrine. To assess how ignorant or theologically manipulative scribes may have changed the biblical text, modern scholars have developed procedures for comparing diverging texts. And in language accessible to nonspecialists, Ehrman explains these procedures and their results. He further explains why textual criticism has frequently sparked intense controversy, especially among scripture-alone Protestants.
In discounting not only the authenticity of existing manuscripts but also the inspiration of the original writers, Ehrman will deeply divide his readers. Although he addresses a popular audience, he undercuts the very religious attitudes that have made the Bible a popular book. Still, this is a useful overview for biblical history collections - Bryce Christensen Amazon Review Error-Ridden Copies The more I studied the manuscript tradition of the New Testament, the more I realized just how radically the text had been altered over the years at the hands of scribes, who were not only conserving scripture but also changing it.
As we learned What we have are copies of these writings, made years later - in most cases, many years later. All scribes did this. So rather than actually having the inspired words of the autographs i. It is an enormous problem. In fact, it is such an enormous problem that a number of textual critics have started to claim that we may as well suspend any discussion of the "original" text, because it is inaccessible to us.
The New Testament Today In addition, we have the writings of church fathers such as Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and Athanasius among the Greeks and Tertullian, Jerome, and Augustine among the Latins - all of them quoting the texts of the New Testament in places, making it possible to reconstruct what their manuscripts now lost, for the most part must have looked like. With this abundance of evidence, what can we say about the total number of variants known today?
Scholars differ significantly in their estimates - some say there are , variants known, some say ,, some say , or more! We do not know for sure because, despite impressive developments in computer technology, no one has yet been able to count them all There are more variations among our manuscripts than there are words in the New Testament. Earlier and Later Texts It would be a grave mistake, though, to think that because later manuscripts agree so extensively with one another, they are therefore our superior witnesses to the "original" text of the New Testament.
For one must always ask: where did these medieval scribes get the texts they copied in so professional a manner? They got them from earlier texts, which were copies of yet earlier texts, which were themselves copies of still earlier texts. Therefore, the texts that are closest in form to the originals are, perhaps unexpectedly, the more variable and amateurish copies of earlier times, not the more standardized professional copies of later times. Latin Translations Before Jerome's Vulgate The copying practices I have been summarizing principally involve the eastern part of the Roman Empire, where Greek was, and continues to be, the principal language.
It was not long, however, before Christians in non-Greek-speaking regions wanted the Christian sacred texts in their own languages. Latin, or course, was the language of much of the western part of the Empire Problems emerged very soon, however, with the Latin translations of scripture, because there were so many of them and these translations differed so broadly from one another.
Even in the opening verses , which form a kind of prologue to the Gospel, appear to be different to the rest. This highly celebrated poem speaks of the "Word" of God, who existed with God from the beginning and was himself God, and who "became flesh" in Jesus Christ.
The passage is written in a highly poetic style not found in the rest of the Gospel; moreover, while its central themes are repeated in the rest of the narrative, some of its most important vocabulary is not. Thus, Jesus is portrayed throughout the narrative as the one who came from above, but never is he called the Word elsewhere in the Gospel.
Is it possible that this opening passage came from a different source than the rest of the account, and that it was added as an appropriate beginning by the author after an earlier edition of the book had already been published? Woman Taken in Adultery The story of Jesus and the woman taken in adultery is arguably the best-known story about Jesus in the Bible; it certainly has been a favorite in Hollywood versions of his life. Despite its popularity, the account is found in only one passage of the New Testament, in John , and it appears not to have been original even there Despite the brilliance of the story As it turns out, it was not originally in the Gospel of John.
In fact, it was not originally part of any of the Gospels. It was added by later scribes. On the day after Sabbath, Mary Magdalene and two other women come back to the tomb in order properly to anoint the body When they arrive, they find that the stone has been rolled away.
Entering the tomb, they see a young man in a white robe, who tells them, "Do not be startled! You are seeking Jesus the Nazarene, who has been crucified.
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