Building Construction Illustrated, 2nd Edition

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Building Construction Illustrated, 2nd Edition

For nearly four decades, the US publication Building Construction Illustrated has offered an outstanding introduction to the principles of building construction. This new European edition focuses on the construction methods most commonly used in Europe, referring largely to UK Building Regulations overlaid with British and European, while applying Francis DK Ching s clear graphic signature style. It provides a coherent and essential primer, presenting all of the basic concepts underlying building construction and equipping readers with useful guidelines for approaching any new materials or techniques they may encounter.

European Building Construction Illustrated provides a comprehensive and lucid presentation of everything from foundations and floor systems to finish work. Laying out the material and structural choices available, it provides a full understanding of how these choices affect a building s form and dimensions. Complete with more than illustrations, the book moves through each of the key stages of the design process, from site selection to building components, mechanical systems and finishes.

Book Details Author : Francis D. Book Appearances 5. You just clipped your first slide!

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Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Visibility Others can see my Clipboard. Cancel Save. Ching's signature style. Its rich and comprehensive approach clearly presents all of the basic concepts underlying building construction. New to this edition are digital enhancements delivered as an online companion to the print edition and also embedded in e-book editions. Features include a 3D model showing how building components come together in a final project. For Trial. Browse more videos. Playing next Oussama Bo.

Early houses consisted of rough timber frames with mud-brick walls and thatched roofing. Sometimes pits were dug in the earth to provide additional warmth and protection; at other times, dwellings were elevated on stilts for ventilation in warm, humid climates or to rise above the shores of rivers and lakes.

The use of heavy timber for the structural framing of walls and roof spans continued to develop over time and was refined, especially in the architecture of China, Korea, and Japan. Houses raised on wood stilts. This Temple of Athena is considered to be a paragon of the Doric order. Carved stone Buddhist monument. Stone-faced brick and concrete amphitheater. Earthquake-resistant timber framework comprised columns, beams, purlins, and a multitude of corbel brackets. Central dome carried on pendentives that enable the transition from round dome to square plan.

Concrete is used in the construction of the vaulting and arches of the lower levels. Cut stone Unadorned cylindrical pillars more than 4 feet 1. Oldest surviving timber pagoda and tallest timber building in the world at a height of feet Masonry vaulting and domes led to higher elevations and greater spans, while the development of pointed arches, clustered columns, and flying buttresses enabled the creation of lighter, more open, skeletal stone structures.

Filippo Brunelleschi designed the double-walled dome, resting on a drum, to allow it to be built without the need for scaffolding from the ground. Until recently the largest church ever built, covering an area of 5. As early as the 6th century ad the main arcades of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul incorporated iron bars as tension ties. During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, iron was used for both decorative and structural components, such as dowels and ties, to strengthen masonry structures.

But it was not until the 18th century that new production methods allowed cast and wrought iron to be produced in large enough quantities to be used as a structural material for the skeletal structures of railway stations, market halls, and other public buildings.

European Building Construction Illustrated

The mass of stone walls and columns transitions to the lighter imprint of iron and steel frames. Earlyth century: Blast furnaces are able to produce large quantities of cast iron. Ahmad Lahauri. Oldest steel-framed building in the world, having a structural frame of cast iron columns and beams. Lateth and earlyth centuries: The Industrial Revolution introduces major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation that alter the socioeconomic and cultural climate in Britain and elsewhere.

Central heating was widely adopted in the earlyth century when the Industrial Revolution caused an increase in the size of buildings for industry, residential use, and services. Pancras Station, London, William Barlow. Trussed arch structure with tie rods below floor level to resist outward thrust.

Prefabricated units of wrought iron and glass were assembled to create , square feet 91, m2 of exhibition space. The formulation of Portland cement by Joseph Aspdin in and the invention of reinforced concrete, attributed to Joseph-Louis Lambot in , stimulated the use of concrete for architectural structures. The modern era in steelmaking began when Henry Bessemer described a process for mass-producing steel relatively cheaply in The first Otis elevator is installed in New York City in The story structural frame of steel and cast iron carries the majority of the weight of the floors and exterior walls.

Reinforced concrete roof vault consists of five rigid frames with thin plates spanning between each frame. First reinforced concrete high-rise building. First contemporary geodesic dome on record, derived from the icosahedron. Reinforced concrete structure, including a feet m diameter dome, influences the use of concrete for enclosing large, public spaces. With the advent of improved steels and computerized stress analytical techniques, steel structures have become lighter and joints more refined, allowing an array of structural shapes.

Building Construction Illustrated

Steel cables combine with fabric membranes to create an extremely lightweight, long-span structure. Became the tallest building in the world when it was completed in Concrete and steel frame structure utilizes a tuned mass damper. Tallest buildings in the world until Taipei was constructed in Iconic shell structures consist of prefabricated, cast-on-site concrete ribs. Architecture embodies ineffable yet sensible, aesthetic qualities that emerge from a union of space, form, and structure. In providing support for other building systems and our activities, a structural system enables the shape and form of a building and its spaces, similar to the way in which our skeletal system gives shape and form to our body and support to its organs and tissues.

So when we speak of architectural structures, we refer to those that unite with form and space in a coherent manner. Designing an architectural structure therefore involves more than the proper sizing of any single element or component, or even the design of any particular structural assembly. It is not simply the task of balancing and resolving forces. Rather, it requires that we consider the manner in which the overall configuration and scale of structural elements, assemblies, and connections encapsulate an architectural idea, reinforce the architectural form and spatial composition of a design proposal, and enable its constructibility.

This then requires an awareness of structure as a system of interconnected and interrelated parts, an understanding of the generic types of structural systems, as well as an appreciation for the capabilities of certain types of structural elements and assemblies. The remaining sections of this chapter outline major aspects of structural systems that support, reinforce, and ultimately give form to an architectural idea.

These structural systems also functioned as the primary system of enclosure and therefore expressed the form of the architecture, typically in an honest and straightforward manner. Whatever formal modifications were made were usually a result of molding or carving the structural material in such a way as to create additive elements, subtractive voids, or reliefs within the mass of the structure.

Even in the modern era, there are examples of buildings that exposed their structural systems—whether in timber, steel, or concrete—using them effectively as the primary architectonic form-givers. Plan SS. Sergius and Bacchus, Istanbul, Turkey, — ad. The Ottomans converted this Eastern Orthodox church into a mosque.

Featuring a central dome plan, it is believed by some to be a model for Hagia Sophia. A structural steel parasol hovers over a modular steel frame structure with sides of enameled steel panels and glass. Some reasons for concealing the structure are practical, as when the structural elements must be clad to make them fire-resistant, or contextual, as when the desired exterior form is at odds with interior space requirements.

In the latter case, the structure may organize the interior spaces while the form of the exterior shell responds to site conditions or constraints. The designer may simply want freedom of expression for the shell without considering how the structural system might aid or hinder formal decisions. Or the structural system may be obscured through neglect rather than intent. In both of these cases, legitimate questions arise as to whether the resulting design is intentional or accidental, willful or, dare we say, careless. An example of the Expressionist movement, this concert hall has an asymmetric structure with a tent-like concrete roof and a stage in the middle of terraced seating.

Its external appearance is subordinate to the functional and acoustic requirements of the concert hall. A novelty when completed, this contemporary art museum is known for its sculpted, titanium-clad forms. The often exuberant nature of shell and membrane structures makes them appropriate candidates for this category. There are also those structures that dominate by the sheer forcefulness with which they express the way they resolve the forces acting on them. These types of structures often become iconic symbols due to their striking imagery.

When judging whether a building celebrates its structure or not, we should be careful to differentiate structural expression from expressive forms which are not, in truth, structural but only appear to be so. The soaring structure, consisting of identical tetrahedrons, develops stability through the triangulation of individual structural units as well as a triangular section.

The thin-shell concrete structure consists of a series of intersecting, saddle-shaped hyperbolic paraboloids arranged in a radial plan. Catenary cables suspended between two long colonnades of outwardleaning and tapered columns carry a gracefully curved concrete roof suggestive of flight.

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Eight groups of four aluminum-clad steel columns rise up from the foundations and support five levels of suspension trusses, from which are hung the floor structures. The first is a correspondence between the form of the structural system and that of the spatial composition. The second is a looser fit in which the structural form and pattern allow more freedom or flexibility in spatial layout.

Correspondence Where there is a correspondence between structural form and spatial composition, either the pattern of structural supports and spanning systems can prescribe the disposition of spaces within a building or the spatial layout can suggest a certain type of structural system. In the design process, which comes first? In ideal cases, we consider both space and structure together as co-determinants of architectural form.

But composing spaces according to needs and desires often precedes thinking about structure. On the other hand, there are times when structural form can be the driving force in the design process. In either case, structural systems that prescribe a pattern of spaces of certain sizes and dimensions, or even a pattern of use, may not allow for flexibility in future use or adaptation.

Structural and Spatial Diagrams in Plan and Section. The structure may be large enough to shelter or encompass a series of spaces within its volume, or the spatial composition may dominate a concealed structure. An irregular or asymmetrical structural system may envelop a more regular spatial composition, or a structural grid may provide a uniform set or network of points against which a freer spatial composition can be gauged or contrasted. A distinction between space and structure may be desirable to provide flexibility of layout; allow for growth and expansion; make visible the identity of different building systems; or express differences between interior and exterior needs, desires, and relationships.

A secondary structure supports a lead-clad roof intended to reduce the penetration of exterior noise into the auditorium while the primary structure supports cherry-wood interior surfaces that are adjustable for tuning of the acoustic environment. Regardless of the size and scale of a building, it comprises physical systems of structure and enclosure that define and organize its forms and spaces.

These elements can be further categorized into a substructure and a superstructure. Its primary function is to support and anchor the superstructure above and transmit its loads safely into the earth. Because it serves as a critical link in the distribution and resolution of building loads, the foundation system, while normally hidden from view, must be designed to both accommodate the form and layout of the superstructure above and respond to the varying conditions of soil, rock, and water below.

The principal loads on a foundation are the combination of dead and live loads acting vertically on the superstructure. In addition, a foundation system must anchor the superstructure against wind-induced sliding, overturning, and uplift, withstand the sudden ground movements of an earthquake, and resist the pressure imposed by the surrounding soil mass and groundwater on basement walls. In some cases, a foundation system may also have to counter the thrust from arched or tensile structures. The structural system of a building, in particular, consists of a stable assembly of structural elements designed and constructed to support and transmit applied loads safely to the ground without exceeding the allowable stresses in the members.

Each of the structural members has a unitary character and exhibits a unique behavior under an applied load. But before individual structural elements and members can be isolated for study and resolution, it is important for the designer to understand how the structural system accommodates and supports in a holistic manner the desired programmatic and contextual forms, spaces, and relationships of an architectural scheme. A system can be defined as an assembly of interrelated or interdependent parts forming a more complex and unified whole and serving a common purpose.

A building can be understood to be the physical embodiment of a number of systems and subsystems that must necessarily be related, coordinated, and integrated with each other as well as with the three-dimensional form and spatial organization of the building as a whole. Vertical continuity in load transmission should be maintained as much as possible for structural efficiency.

The bearing capacity of the underlying soil or rock may therefore limit the size of a building or require deep foundations. Shallow Foundations Shallow or spread foundations are employed when stable soil of adequate bearing capacity occurs relatively near to the ground surface. They are placed directly below the lowest part of a substructure and transfer building loads directly to the supporting soil by vertical pressure.

Shallow foundations can take any of the following geometric forms:. Deep Foundations Deep foundations consist of caissons or piles that extend down through unsuitable soil to transfer building loads to a more appropriate bearing stratum of rock or dense sands and gravels well below the superstructure.

Mat foundations may be stiffened by a grid of ribs, beams, or walls.

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The size of a footing is determined by its load and the load-carrying capacity of the supporting soil. Shell The shell or envelope of a building, consisting of the roof, exterior walls, windows, and doors, provides protection and shelter for the interior spaces of a building. Structure A structural system is required to support the shell of a building as well as its interior floors, walls, and partitions, and to transfer the applied loads to the substructure. In the construction process, the superstructure rises from the substructure, following the same paths along which the superstructure transmits its loads down to the substructure.

Concurrent with thinking about formal and spatial options, we should also begin to consider our structural options—the palette of materials, the types of support, spanning, and lateral-force-resisting systems— and how these choices might influence, support, and reinforce the formal and spatial dimensions of a design idea. A masonry wall, being strong in compression but relatively weak in bending, will be thicker than a reinforced concrete wall doing the same work.

A steel column will be thinner than a wood post supporting the same load. A 4-inch reinforced concrete slab will span farther than 4-inch wood decking. Structural analysis is the process of determining the ability of a structure or any of its constituent members, either existing or assumed, to safely carry a given set of loads without material distress or excessive deformation, given the arrangement, shape, and dimensions of the members, the types of connections and supports utilized, and the allowable stresses of the materials employed.

In other words, structural analysis can occur only if given a specific structure and certain load conditions. Structural design, on the other hand, refers to the process of arranging, interconnecting, sizing, and proportioning the members of a structural system in order to safely carry a given set of loads without exceeding the allowable stresses of the materials employed. Structural design, similar to other design activities, must operate in an environment of uncertainty, ambiguity, and approximation.

It is a search for a structural system that can meet not only the load requirements but also address the architectural, urban design, and programmatic issues at hand. The first step in the structural design process may be stimulated by the nature of the architectural design, its site and context, or the availability of certain materials. Once the type of structural system, its configuration or pattern, and the palette of structural materials are projected, then the design process can proceed to the sizing and proportioning of assemblies and individual members and the detailing of connections.

Structural design and building construction generally operate from the ground up, while structural analysis works from the top down. See Chapter 5 for lateral-force-resisting systems and strategies. Structural elements can be joined to each other in three ways. Butt joints. We can also categorize structural connections on a geometric basis. There are four fundamental types of structural connections. So as we strategize to develop a structural plan for a building, we should consider both the essential qualities of the architectural composition and the nature and configuration of the structural elements.

If so, are these parts to be hierarchically ordered? Zoning Ordinances Zoning ordinances constrain the allowable bulk height and area and shape of a building based on its location in a municipality and position on its site, usually by specifying various aspects of its size. The size and shape of a building are also controlled indirectly by specifying the minimum required distances from the structure to the property lines of the site in order to provide for air, light, solar access, and privacy. Building height may be expressed as either total height from the ground plane or the number of stories.

The larger a building, the greater the number of occupants, and the more hazardous the occupancy, the more fire-resistant the structure should be. The intent is to protect a building from fire and to contain a fire for the time required to safely evacuate occupants and for a firefighting response to occur.

The limitation on size may be exceeded if the building is equipped with an automatic fire sprinkler system, or if it is divided by fire walls into areas not exceeding the size limitation. Occupancy Classifications A Assembly Auditoriums, theaters, and stadiums B Business Offices, laboratories, and higher education facilities E Educational Child-care facilities and schools through the 12th grade F Factory and Industrial Fabricating, assembling, or manufacturing facilities H High Hazard Facilities handling a certain nature and quantity of hazardous materials I Institutional Facilities for supervised occupants, such as hospitals, nursing homes, and reformatories M Mercantile Stores for the display and sale of merchandise R Residential Homes, apartment buildings, and hotels S Storage Warehousing facilities.

As occupancy is usually determined before heights and areas, the table will typically be entered by reading down the list of occupancy groups to find the occupancy that fits the building design. Reading across leads to the allowable heights and building areas based on types of construction. Note that the distinction between A and B categories of construction types is one of level of fire resistance.

Because category A is of higher fire resistance, Type A buildings of any construction type have higher allowable heights and areas than Type B buildings. Using the principle of classifying occupancies by degree of hazard and building types by fire-resistance, the higher the level of fire and life safety, the larger and taller a building can be.

Heights are expressed in two ways. The first is height in feet above the grade plane and is generally independent of occupancy, but tied to fire-resistance; the second is height in stories and is tied to occupancy. Both sets of criteria apply to each analysis. This is to avoid having high floor-to-floor heights between stories that could generate a building exceeding the height limit in feet above grade plane if heights were not also tabulated.

The illustrations on the facing page show the relationship of occupancy and construction type to allowable heights and building areas. The examples highlight the differences as one proceeds from Type I fire-protected construction to Type V unrated construction. As the fire resistance of a construction decreases, so too will the allowable building height and area and the permissible number of occupants decrease. Some combustible materials are allowed if they are ancillary to the primary structure of the building. The fire-resistive requirements for nonbearing exterior walls are based on their fire-separation distance from an interior lot line, centerline of a street, or an imaginary line between two buildings on the same property.

Fire-resistance ratings are based on the performance of various materials and construction assemblies under fire-test conditions as defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM. However, the building code allows designers to use several alternate methods to demonstrate compliance with fire-resistive criteria. One method allows the use of ratings determined by such recognized agencies as Underwriters Laboratory or Factory Mutual. The International Building Code itself contains a listing of prescriptive assemblies, which describe the protective measures that can be applied to structural members, to floor and roof construction, and to walls to achieve the necessary ratings.

These attributes—redundancy and continuity—apply not to a specific material or to an individual type of structural member, such as a beam, column, or truss, but rather to a building structure viewed as a holistic system of interrelated parts. The failure of a building structure can result from any fracturing, buckling, or plastic deformation that renders a structural assembly, element, or joint incapable of sustaining the load-carrying function for which it was designed. To avoid failure, structural designs typically employ a factor of safety, expressed as the ratio of the maximum stress that a structural member can withstand to the maximum stress allowed for it in the use for which it is designed.

Redundancy In addition to using factors of safety and employing ductile materials, another method for guarding against structural failure is to build redundancy into the structural design. A redundant structure includes members, connections, or supports not required for a statically determinate structure so that if one member, connection, or support fails, others exist to provide alternative paths for the transfer of forces. In other words, the concept of redundancy involves providing multiple load paths whereby forces can bypass a point of structural distress or a localized structural failure.

Redundancy, especially in the lateral-force-resisting systems of a structure, is highly desirable in earthquakeprone regions.

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It is also an essential attribute of long-span structures in which the failure of a primary truss, arch, or girder could lead to a large portion of the structure failing or even to its total collapse. Under normal conditions, any structural element experiences elastic deformation—deflection or torsion— as a force is applied and as it returns to its original shape when the force is removed. However, extreme forces, such as those generated during an earthquake, can generate inelastic deformation in which the element is unable to return to its original shape.

To resist such extreme forces, elements should be constructed of ductile materials. Ductility is the property of a material that enables it to undergo plastic deformation after being stressed beyond the elastic limit and before rupturing. Ductility is a desirable property of a structural material, since plastic behavior is an indicator of reserve strength and can often serve as a visual warning of impending failure.

Further, the ductility of a structural member allows excessive loads to be distributed to other members, or to other parts of the same member. In effect, the continuity of the beam across multiple supports results in redundant paths for vertical and lateral loads to follow to the support foundations. Progressive collapse can be described as the spread of an initial local failure from one structural member to another, eventually resulting in the collapse of an entire structure or a disproportionately large part of it. This is a major concern because progressive collapse can result in significant structural damage and loss of life.

With rigid beam-column connections, the same frame possesses ample load paths for both vertical and lateral loads. The columns, in turn, transfer the loads in a continuous path down to the foundation. The truss or girder redistributes the loads to columns that are still functional. Redundancy in the overall building structure provides alternate load paths and helps prevent progressive collapse. Continuous load paths help to ensure that all forces to which the structure is subjected can be delivered from the point of their application to the foundation.

Inadequate connections represent a weak link in a load path and are a common cause of the damage to and collapse of buildings during earthquakes. The bracing transmits the lateral forces to the 3rd floor diaphragm, which in turn loads the 2nd floor bracing. Lateral forces collected at the 2nd floor are then transmitted through the 2nd floor diaphragm to the diagonal bracing at the ground floor level. The load path is circuitous because of the vertical discontinuity of the diagonal bracing. The spatial and formal essence of an architectural scheme and the structuring of the idea go hand in hand; each informs the other.

To illustrate this symbiotic relationship, this chapter describes the development of structural patterns and how they influence the formal composition and spatial layout embedded in an architectural idea. This chapter begins with both regular and irregular grid patterns, and then discusses transitional and contextual patterns. Structural patterns can be seen as a twodimensional layout of supports and spans, as well as three-dimensional arrangements having formal and spatial implications for an architectural design.

There are several fundamental ways to define a single volume of space. Support Options Two columns supporting a beam or girder create an open framework that both separates and unites adjacent spaces. Any enclosure for physical shelter and visual privacy requires the erection of a nonbearing wall, which can either be supported by the structural frame or be selfsupporting. Columns support concentrated loads. As the number of columns increases and the column spacing decreases, the supporting plane becomes more solid than void and approaches the character of a bearing wall, which support distributed loads.

A bearing wall provides support as well as divides a field into separate and distinct spaces. Any opening required to relate the spaces on either side of the wall tends to weaken its structural integrity. Both column-and-beam frames and bearing walls can be used in combination to develop any number of spatial compositions. To provide shelter against the vagaries of weather as well as a sense of enclosure, some sort of spanning system is required to bridge the space between the support systems. In looking at the fundamental ways of spanning the space between two support planes, we must consider both the way applied forces are distributed to the supporting planes as well as the form of the spanning system.

One-Way Spanning Systems Whether the spanning system transfers and distributes applied forces in one or two or even multiple directions will determine the pattern of supports required. As the name implies, one-way systems transfer applied forces to a pair of more or less parallel supporting planes.

This configuration naturally leaves two sides of the spatial unit open to adjacent spaces, giving it a strong directional quality. Two-Way Spanning Systems On the other hand, two-way systems transfer applied forces in two directions, requiring two sets of supporting planes or columns, more or less perpendicular to each other and the direction of transfer of forces. Because continuity is always a desirable structural condition, it is usually sensible to extend structural units along major support lines and span directions to form a three-dimensional grid.

If it is necessary to accommodate spaces of exceptional shape or size, a structural grid can be adapted by distorting, deforming, or enlarging certain bays. Structural Grids A grid is a pattern of straight lines, usually equally spaced and intersecting at right angles, that serves as a reference for locating points on a map or plan. In architectural design, a grid is often used as an ordering device not only for locating but also for regulating the major elements of a plan. When we speak of a structural grid, therefore, we are referring specifically to a system of lines and points for locating and regulating the position of major structural elements, such as columns and bearing walls.

To approximate a curved line of support, a series of columns should support a series of simply spanning beams. Bearing walls, however, can be curved in plan. Proportions The proportions of the structural bays influence, and may limit, the material and structural choices of the horizontal spanning systems. While one-way systems are flexible and can span in either direction of either square or rectangular structural bays, two-way systems are best used to span square or nearly square bays.

Dimensions The dimensions of the structural bays obviously impact both the direction and length of the horizontal spans. The greater the span, the deeper the spanning system will have to be. We use such terms as largescale, small-scale, fine and coarse, to describe how we perceive or judge the relative sizes of things. In developing a structural grid, we can refer to its scale as well, judging the relative fineness or coarseness of the dimensions and proportions of the bays against what we might consider to be normal.

Another aspect of scale is the relative sizes of the members used. Some structures can be seen to be concentrated in nature due to their use of relatively large members carrying concentrated loads. On the other hand, there are some structures that use a multiplicity of small members that distribute their loads among a large number of relatively small members. A final attribute of some structural systems is its grain, as determined by the direction, size, and arrangement of its spanning elements. At a minimum, the vertical support pattern should not limit the usefulness of a space nor constrain its intended activities.

Those activities requiring large clear spans will often dictate the structural approach, but smaller-scale activities can usually be accommodated by a variety of structural approaches.

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Illustrated on this and the facing page are various types and scales of structural patterns and the pattern and scale of human activity each might be able to accommodate. While regular grids cannot be considered the norm, they do provide a useful way to begin thinking about the structural implications of various grid patterns. Square Grids A single square bay can be spanned with either a one-way or two-way system. However, when multiple square bays extend across the field of a square grid, the structural advantage of continuity in two directions suggests the use of concrete two-way spanning systems is appropriate, particularly for small to medium span ranges.

It should be noted that while two-way structural action requires square or very nearly square bays, square bays do not always have to be spanned with two-way systems. For example, a linear arrangement of square bays allows continuity in only one direction, eliminating the structural advantage of two-way spanning systems and suggesting that one-way spanning systems may be more effective than two-way systems.

Also, as a square bay grows beyond 60 feet 18 m , more one-way systems and fewer two-way systems become available. Bearing walls—and to a lesser extent, columnand-beam frames—can emphasize one axis over the other and suggest the use of a one-way spanning system. The fundamental question is how to arrange the spanning elements. It is not always easy to determine in which direction the primary structural elements should span. It may often be better from a structural efficiency point of view to keep the spans of major beams and girders as short as possible and to span the long dimension of a rectangular bay with repetitive members supporting a uniformly distributed load.

However, any perceived directionality is influenced more by the nature of the vertical supporting elements rather than the actual proportions of the bays. It may often be better from a structural efficiency point of view to keep the spans of collector beams and girders as short as possible while feeder joists and beams supporting a uniformly distributed load span the long dimension. One of these is to offset two parallel grids to produce a tartan or plaid pattern of supports.

The resulting interstitial or intervening spaces can be used to mediate between larger spaces, define paths of movement, or house mechanical systems. While the tartan grid illustrated here is based on the square, rectangular tartan grids are also feasible. In either case, the decision to use one-way or two-way spanning systems depends on the bay proportions, as discussed on page The direction of span is influenced by the support spacing, measured both radially and circumferentially.

They are capable of growth in a predictable manner, and even if one or more elements is missing, the pattern of the whole remains recognizable. Even radial grids have recurring relationships defined by their circular geometry. In architectural design, grids are powerful organizing devices. It should be noted, however, that regular grids are only generalized patterns that can be modified and made specific in response to circumstances of program, site, and materials.

The objective is to develop a grid that integrates form, space, and structure into a cohesive whole.

Building Construction Illustrated, 2nd Edition Building Construction Illustrated, 2nd Edition
Building Construction Illustrated, 2nd Edition Building Construction Illustrated, 2nd Edition
Building Construction Illustrated, 2nd Edition Building Construction Illustrated, 2nd Edition
Building Construction Illustrated, 2nd Edition Building Construction Illustrated, 2nd Edition
Building Construction Illustrated, 2nd Edition Building Construction Illustrated, 2nd Edition
Building Construction Illustrated, 2nd Edition Building Construction Illustrated, 2nd Edition
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