Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13


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The next chapter explores the relationship between Romantic-era poetry and novels and the development of two very distinct educational schools for the dissemination of pure English: elocution and expository prose. The well-formed sentence posed a greater problem for novelists throughout the eighteenth century. Even early on, novelists tended to be less confident in the ability of the sentence to adequately describe human experience. The issues surrounding the well-formed sentence in novels were transferred to the demands placed on Romantic poetry by the popular practice of excerpting.

As Elfenbein demonstrates, Romantic-era poets were by and large as resistant as their novel-writing counterparts to the idea of a discrete part representing the whole, and wrote stanzas that stubbornly refused extraction from the larger narratives of the poems themselves. Romanticism and the Rise of English represents a significant contribution to our understanding of the pressures of philology on Romantic-era poetry and prose as well as the fundamental transformation of the English language during this period.

During the period —, the Aristotelian theory of epigenesis was revisited by European scientists who were interested in exploring embyrogenesis as a process of self-generation compelled by an internal, vital power. The search for the source of vital power converted natural researchers into natural philosophers and transformed poets like Christopher Smart, William Blake, Percy Shelley, and John Keats into life scientists who used their art to trace the mysterious power embedded in the structures of nature.

As Gigante reveals, the Romantic fascination with monstrosity was an offshoot of the fears associated with the anarchic and potentially monstrous energies of organic form reproducing itself ad infinitum. Life: Organic Form and Romanticism reveals an important and overlooked connection between some of the more difficult and abstruse poems in the Romantic canon and the principles of Romantic-era vitalism.

Students of Romanticism who enjoyed Julie A. Like Carlson before him, Krawczyk argues that it is impossible to interpret the works of members of Romantic-era literary families without taking into consideration their familial networks. This familial collaboration is exemplified by the relationship between Anna Barbauld and her brother, John Aikin. Once again, this is a concerted effort, with Aikin leaving the discussion of the sentimental entirely to Barbauld. Throughout their lives and works, as Krawczyk demonstrates, this brother-and-sister pair worked in tandem on educating and reforming their middle-class readers by pooling their respective talents.

The next brother-and-sister pairing examined in Romantic Literary Families is the collaborative relationship between William and Dorothy Wordsworth. In contrast to Aikin and Barbauld, who spent much of their childhood and young adult years under the same roof and under the tutelage of a kind and loving father, the early years for Dorothy and William were characterized by a sense of profound loss: the loss of their parents at a young age, and the subsequent separation of the two until they reunited in The chapters that follow widen the scope from real-life sisters and brothers to the desire amongst other Romantic-era writers to replicate familial structures outside the family.

One example was Coleridge, whose longing for a literary family, Krawczyk argues, informed his early efforts to establish the unrealized Pantisocracy, and also underwrote his intensely collaborative and intensively competitive relationship with Wordsworth. The tensions between nationalism and cosmopolitanism at the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century have generated a great deal of interest amongst Romantic-era scholars over the past few years.

What sets Romantic Cosmopolitanism , by Esther Wohlgemut, apart from other recent studies on this subject is its nuanced understanding of cosmopolitanism not in opposition but as an alternative approach to nationalism during this period. These essays provide a helpful summary of the eighteenth-century debate on cosmopolitanism, and gesture to cosmopolitanism as a non-unified model of nationhood. Wohlgemut revisits the famous debate between Richard Price and Edmund Burke as the paradigmatic instance of the increasing divide between radicals such as Price who, like Kant, endorsed a cosmopolitan understanding of the social contract, and conservatives such as Burke, who perceived cosmopolitanism as a threat to the idea and ideals of the British nation.

Cosmopolitanism continued to be a fraught subject in the early decades of the nineteenth century, as Wohlgemut demonstrates in her investigation of how the Edinburgh Review under Francis Jeffrey utilized the political economy of Adam Smith to endorse a cosmopolitan model of commerce based on the interdependence of nations. Undeterred or perhaps encouraged by negative reviews that cast his cosmopolitanism as a threat to the emergent sense of nationhood in Britain, Byron went on to create one of the most thoroughgoing cosmopolitan figures of the nineteenth century: Don Juan.

Romantic Diasporas explores how Romantic national identity was shored up by literary representations of exiled or marginalized groups. At the same time as record numbers of foreigners were flocking to England, England was doing everything in its power to rid itself of its undesirables by transporting them to Australia.

In his popular published account of his transportation to Botany Bay, George Barrington, the so-called prince of pickpockets, suggested that rehabilitated criminals like himself were the ideal representatives of Britain abroad, affirming and protecting the cultural and moral imperatives of the British nation. The final chapter explores the ambiguous position in British society of another marginalized group: the Jews. One of the merits of Romantic Ecologies and Colonial Cultures is the attention it pays to lesser-known authors and works.

The first two chapters investigate how local ecosystems and the people who were sustained by them were undermined by colonial governments which invoked contemporary ideologies of racial and cultural hierarchy that naturalized the subordination of the indigenous races. As Hutchings notes, one strategy was to characterize Africans and North Americans as less noble than savage—the progeny of barbaric landscapes who could only benefit from the civilizing practices of the West. This discussion of contemporary discourses of animality and environmental determinism provides a foundation for the close readings that follow.

Chapters 5 and 6 examine the representation of Native American people and the North American landscape in the work of two Romantic-era Scottish poets, William Richardson and Thomas Campbell. The final chapter explores how the Romantic concepts of nature and culture informed the naturalism and ethnography of the nineteenth-century Anishinaabe or Ojibwa author George Copway also known by his traditional name Kahgegagahbowh, or Standing Firm , whose writings reveal the influence of British writers such as Robert Burns, Walter Scott, Southey, and Byron.

Two excellent collections of essays published this year fall into the category of general Romanticism: Romanticism, History, Historicism: Essays on an Orthodoxy , edited by Damian Walford Davies, and Romanticism and the Object , edited by Larry H. The first four chapters of Romanticism, History, Historicism emphasize the limits or problems confronting new historicism today.

Kenneth R. My Place or Yours? The following three chapters examine the negotiation of history by Romantic women writers as well as the relatively recent phenomenon of feminist historiographies of this era. Anne K Mellor and Susan J. Romanticism and the Object , expertly edited by Larry H. An object is a subset of things that is made, manufactured, acquired, or inanimate. Almeida explores the importance of the negotiations between Francisco de Miranda and William Pitt in the creation of Latin America as an object for Britain.

These letters, Chapin argues, are Romantic objects pointing to the necessity of resisting tyrannical authority, and the child at the centre of this trial becomes the chief object of tragic innocence. Magdalena M. The final two chapters of Romanticism and the Object address this topic from a transnational perspective. William S. Two essays that fall into the category of general Romanticism conclude this section. The second essay, Dawn M. I am going to begin with a general review of an important collection of essays on various aspects of the Romantic period, Spheres of Action: Speech and Performance in Romantic Culture , edited by Alexander Dick and Angela Esterhammer.

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Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

I will provide general comments first and then discuss three specific essays in some detail; other essays are reviewed elsewhere within this volume. Spheres of Action seems almost an attempt to take stock of what the authors argue is a reconstructed view of Romanticism which has arisen over the first decade of the twenty-first century, and then to articulate this view.

The title itself is descriptive of this project: Theory and practice, discourse and agency, behaviour and identity, performance and audience response are the terms addressed by the contributors to this collection. Some of their essays explicitly seek to recover the Romantic Speaking voice; some explore the function of gesture, dress and other forms of embodiment; and some address the journalism, and the novel.

He demonstrates conclusively that theatre affected the debate in the House perhaps to be more fair to him I should argue that he says that the participants in the debate affected the theatre and he gives an elegant description of how the debate was subsequently reported. All this is first-rate. The essay is essentially written in three sections, and two-thirds of it is tremendous; one-third is unconvincing.

Sarah M. In other words the rooms in which they were delivered, the manner of their performance, the reception by the audience, and the transmission of that reception through the interpretation and press reports all should be brought into consideration when constructing an understanding of the lectures. Within this treatment we receive what might almost be called a short biography of the Royal Institution the only room in which Coleridge lectured that still survives. She carefully points out that both Southey and Wordsworth derided the genre of public lecturing and attempted to dissuade Coleridge from the enterprise but succeeded only in delaying his delivery of his various series of lectures.

The final section of the article argues that in his lectures on Shakespeare Coleridge found much to identify with in Hamlet, and that this self-identification shaped his larger views on Shakespeare; there is merit in this view and it is substantiated with sufficient quotations to make the argument persuasive. She is certainly correct in her assertion that taking into account the elements involved in their delivery will give greater insight into early nineteenth-century public lectures, and this is a compelling argument which reaches far beyond Coleridge.

Her overarching point is that the use of satire by the two defendants was an influence on Shelley when he composed The Cenci , and she has the epistolary evidence from Shelley to back this up. This essay is extremely dense, and its arguments very technical indeed as are all legal interpretations ; they are logically progressive, however, and in no way does Myers seek to obfuscate her point through using technical legal jargon.

Though dense and technical, each one of her arguments is clear. She notes that both Eaton and Hone used satire in different ways during their trials in such a way as to diminish the credibility of the legal system: both, to differing extents, pointed out that conducting the trial required them to cite their works in evidence, which effectively put the state in the position of partaking in the blasphemy by forcing them to be read out again.

The final third of the essay is a close reading of The Cenci in which Myers argues that Cenci himself is parodied by Shelley to represent both the fabric of the Established Church in this case Roman Catholicism and the desire of the Enlightenment mind to move away from it. This is a paradigmatic reading no doubt, but Myers has the quotations, the contemporary commentary by Shelley, and the rhetorical skill to draw elegant parallels between the trials and the text of The Cenci. Myers certainly appears to have demonstrated a source text for The Cenci in the form of the two blasphemy trials; anyone with any interest whatsoever in The Cenci or in Shelley generally would benefit from reading this article, which—to pardon the pun—cannot be given full justice in a brief review.

The second major essay collection concerned with Romantic prose published in , The Oxford Handbook of Samuel Taylor Coleridge , edited by Frederick Burwick, is nothing short of stunning. This is bar none the best resource for teaching the thought of Coleridge in existence. It might almost have been better titled an encyclopedia, because like an encyclopedia it has thirty-seven discrete articles on general topics written by experts in each particular field, and many of these are divided into even more discrete sub-sections, but the choice to opt for concision and to aim the articles at a general audience was a very wise one.

When the authors of YWES divided up their reviews, I agreed to make general comments about both this book, and Spheres of Action , and so though I will discuss only a limited selection of essays, I will stitch general comments throughout the paragraphs. Though what general comment one can make other than to praise the project eludes me. All of the chapters seek to be polemical, and because of this every one of them could serve as an introduction to a section of Coleridge studies. This volume will open a pathway to Coleridge for a much wider academic audience.

While I discuss three significant essays here, readers are advised to explore all the contributions to this collection. Each one of them has a beginning and an end of argument. Each one of them teaches the novice the basics of theology. The title of this essay gives the author absolute claim to discuss everything he does, presenting a largely Germanic interpretation of Coleridge. The same ground is covered elsewhere in the volume, but with less acumen. Again, it is a good particular introduction to the influence of German philosophy for a student.

This is disappointing. Having said that, she takes a largely chronological approach. There is nothing in any way controversial in this essay, though there is arguably nothing novel either. This essay does not reach for the stars, but it accomplishes what it set out to do. This volume will live in the reference rooms of libraries rather than languish in the stacks for the foreseeable future.

We are all lucky to have it: linguist, scholar, translator, philosopher. James Vigus wrote his monograph Platonic Coleridge while a Ph. Whether or not it has been underestimated it has probably been under-reported, or openly remarked upon less than it should. Some will argue that Vigus overplays his hand, but I shall not be one of them. He furthermore protects himself from the accusation of being too one-sided by keeping Kant as a bridge figure firmly in the interpretation throughout, devoting an entire chapter to him.

Throughout chapter 5 Vigus carefully discriminates between works intended for different audiences, and particularly published and therefore public works versus those intended for smaller audiences: hence he treats the Friend as a work for a published audience and the Opus Maximum as a work for a private audience. I find it odd that this quotation is met with no comment on its irony by Vigus, since the Friend of was a subscription journal designed to provide Coleridge with a living his second attempt at such a project, The Watchman , being the first and the Friend of was a rejig of the journal into a longer form designed to provide Coleridge with a livelihood from royalties.

But this is a minor issue. He views the Friend as the former and the Opus Maximum as the latter. His argument is that because the Opus Maximum was intended for an esoteric audience Coleridge was able to develop his ideas on the Will and the Divine Idea more completely because he had no need to explain them to a general audience.

I have a fundamental problem with the logic of this argument: Vigus admits that Coleridge intended to publish the Opus Maximum eventually. I cannot see the Opus Maximum as intended only for a small circle of illuminati who hovered around Highgate though such a society certainly existed ; it is simply yet another work that Coleridge never managed to get into print. Vigus proposes that the ideas that are inchoate in the Friend were more fully developed in the Opus Maximum because of the audience; I propose they were more fully developed because Coleridge had been cerebrating on them for another decade.

That image is two self-conscious mirrors facing one another so that the contents of the one become an equal part of the contents of the other. Knox argues that the image of mimesis is more apt for Coleridge as a translator than the image of the lamp that is usually given to Romanticism. In other words, Knox is arguing that Coleridge viewed translation as the translator putting both of the two poets or philosophers into the product in a mutual, self-conscious exchange. Knox concludes that, for Coleridge, the enterprise of translation was to give the two mirrors a common focus.

David P. Haney knows a tremendous amount about the political and ethical writings of both philosophers, and this article will be of great interest to those who are familiar with their works. For those who are coming to Levinas for the first time this essay will be difficult, though Haney must be given credit for a very fine introduction to his essay which sets the philosophical scene and, after all, the essay collection is about Levinas and not Romanticism.

There are indeed striking parallels between Levinas and Coleridge, both of whom chose to give primacy to ethical relationships. For Levinas, one does not have to encounter the Other; there is no empiricism in his philosophy. We are as obligated to someone we will never meet in Africa as we are to our neighbour; Coleridge would hold that we are equally obliged to all persons because all are equal creatures: created by the Trinitarian God.

Jeffery W. The language may be overly dramatic, but I am in substantial agreement with this opinion. Coleridge changed his mind often, and at times nearly capriciously, on matters of religion in precisely the same way that he changed his mind often about nearly everything else. Barbeau started his journey through the thought of Coleridge with Confessions and has broadened his scope over time. This book presents a fine introductory treatment of Coleridge on the Bible, and pushes outward to attempt to come to grips with the question of what, precisely, was his faith.

Wendling is certainly correct to present Coleridge as interested in empiricism, and idealism and Platonism, and to be frustrated that the wider society wished to prioritize empiricism over other methods of philosophy. Members of those circles also attended lectures given by Nitsch. This link between Nitsch and Jacobinism was one which Coleridge sought aggressively to distance himself from in his later life—which is likely why he embellished and lied in the Biographia.

When Coleridge ventured to Germany and learned the real system of Kant it became a pervasive constructive influence on his thought. Class is right in pointing out that Coleridge must have been introduced to Kant previous to the voyage, and right in tracing the likely source; though her comments on the veracity or otherwise of the Biographia are less novel.

Elfenbein clearly did not know the ordering of the articles else he would have remarked upon the irony that where Marx and Engels saw the church as the destroying cancer of society conveniently ignoring the fact that its theology had produced the philosophical principles of equality and beneficence on which they based their work , Coleridge saw it as the guardian of all that was good in society. What Elfenbein chooses to concentrate on in this short and excellent piece is the clerisy, not in its administrative form, but rather in its form as the guardian of education in England.

He focuses particularly on the figure of the village schoolmaster. Elfenbein points out that there was no figure more commonly the source of satirical derision than the village schoolmaster within Victorian and eighteenth-century literature. Coleridge, he argued, constructively elevated rehabilitated perhaps the image of the marginally literate sadist or hopelessly incompetent intellectual which was so often the standard representation.

Elfenbein sees On the Constitution of the Church and State as posing a challenge to literary authors: did their work provide anything of equal value to the education provided by the schoolmaster? Kazuyoshi has done excellent work in bringing Cowper to the foreground of the Evangelical movement, and I can easily see Cowper being influential to some degree on the young Coleridge Kazuyoshi has a couple of quotations from the letters to substantiate this interpretation, but the evidence can only be called persuasive and not compelling.

She also seeks to explore the masculine and feminine attributes of the way he used the words. I find the idea that More thought Yearsley was getting too big for her bonnet entirely plausible More particularly mentions with derision Yearsley wearing gauze bonnets in a letter written in August ; More could be an entirely distasteful, self-centred, conceited, and downright nasty woman when it suited her politically. She was also fundamentally classist in her view of society, and so having a female rival from a lower social class, whom she had originally provided patronage to, become an equally popular poetic voice must have galled her to the core.

Much of what Andrews wants to accomplish within this article is to get us to read the poems on their own merits. In a sense Andrews has already succeeded in her objective of getting scholars to treat both women as serious poets, because anyone who reads this article will be thinking more of the poetry than the rivalry by the end of the piece.


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It is well known that Southey got the idea of the story from Coleridge, who was performing it as a set piece of after-dinner entertainment from very early in the s, but Coleridge had no proprietary claim on the threads of the story. In fact those threads appear to lead all the way back to Smart. All but one of the later printings are clearly derivative from The Midwife , but the story had entered popular culture and any association with Smart was lost early on.

Chandler goes to some length to detail the interaction of Southey and Coleridge concerning the story of Daniel Dove of Doncaster and his horse Nobs, and argues that it was clearly a long-running inside joke between them. It tells us nothing about the force of the normative, or about how the energy of language must necessarily, much of the time, fail to bind its speakers together. Finally, all scholars of Romantic prose should note that the letters of Leigh Hunt, an invaluable resource to both Hunt scholars and others, were placed online by the University of Iowa in this project is discussed elsewhere in this volume.

Letters usually are covered under the prose section in YWES but there was not a natural place for such a discussion to fit in this article, and furthermore there is little general commentary I could make other than effusively praising Iowa for funding this project and thanking the editors for their work. Should there be a section on Romantic prose fiction? Why rule it out from our discussion of Enlightenment literature—or then again, from the nineteenth century?


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Which authors should we consider here, and why? This is an important volume. Haywood as Romantic novelist? Scott C. Shawn Lisa Maurer reads the relationships between men in the radical fiction of William Godwin and Thomas Holcroft against the backdrop both of their own friendship and of changing attitudes to male friendship in the s. Just as Maurer shows how Holcroft and Godwin look back to and test earlier concepts of friendship, King discusses the ways in which Opie reuses staples of eighteenth-century fiction—in particular, the duel—to negotiate contemporary ideologies.

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Lester, these are complex indeed, as Julie Shaffer explains. So does Enlightening Romanticism offer any solutions to the problems of periodization and categorization? Stephen C. Unfortunately, Arnold A. Garnai concentrates on a specific period; Egenolf focuses on a particular device. Informed by theories of book history, including H. Nora Nachumi, Acting Like a Lady: British Women Novelists and the Eighteenth-Century Theater , also looks at three women writers—Elizabeth Inchbald, Frances Burney, and Jane Austen—in detail, placing them in a broader context of attitudes towards playwriting, performance, and theatre.

All these novelists themselves also had very different relationships with the stage, whether through playwriting, family theatricals, acting, or play-going. Female writers might approach the issue in different ways: in her opening chapter, for example, Price sets Clara Reeve alongside Anna Letitia Barbauld, discussing their differences but showing how both are highly aware of the cultural power of the discourse of taste.

If Reeve and Barbauld were promoting the mental independence of female readers, women such as Wollstonecraft were simultaneously proclaiming their independence as writers. Esterhammer exposes a remarkably successful Romantic forgery: the novel Andrew of Padua which presents itself as an eighteenth-century Italian text, an anonymous translation of a novel by Abbate Francisco Furbo.

Indeed, the novel is still catalogued in libraries as the work of Furbo. But Esterhammer finally reveals Furbo as a fictional author, a pseudo-scholarly hoax complete with biography, bibliography, and reception history. Attention to form and style marked some good work on Charlotte Smith this year. James Holt McGavran, Jr. Mark K. Wilcox SiR 48[] — What makes the episode so unsettling? Emily R. As ever, there was a good deal of strong work on Jane Austen.

Table of contents

Two books shed light on the ways in which Austen might be read alongside other writers: Peter W. Through four interconnected essays, however, Graham makes an involving case for a reading of Austen and Darwin alongside one another. This is a pleasingly personal study, drawn from close reading and careful thought, which prompts larger questions about the relationship of two authors who might at first seem opposed.

Why put these authors together? Walker shows how we might productively read the complex and ambivalent portraits of marriage in their writing alongside other forms of relationship, with siblings and friends, and in the broader context of nineteenth-century marriage theories—Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Schelling—and modern philosophical approaches, where Walker finds the work of Stanley Cavell particularly useful.

More generally, the nature of sibling relationships in the period is analysed. Blanchemain looks at moments of argument and verbal warfare between women in order to analyse conversational patterns and the questions they raise about gender. Just who are the Dashwoods? Northanger Abbey , with its evasive narrative and moments of parody, offers a good case study.

Arguing for the importance of T. Partly this involves looking again at our categorizations and key critical terms, and two major studies this year offer different ways of doing this: The Female Gothic: New Directions , edited by Diana Wallace and Andrew Smith, and The Gothic and Catholicism: Religion, Cultural Exchange and the Popular Novel, — , by Maria Purves. The Female Gothic is a timely and interesting collection.

All the essays critically examine the use of this term. Essays trace different traditions and adaptations of female Gothic: both Meredith Miller and Anya Heise-von der Lippe emphasize the ways in which female Gothic might be used to question racial and national identity, Miller in the context of Southern Gothic, and Heise-von der Lippe through a rereading of Toni Morrison. She strives to historicize and contextualize such moments against Scottish Enlightenment thought, and, in particular, stadial theory.

But in an important book which encourages a new approach to scholarship and teaching of the Gothic, Maria Purves argues that we should reread attitudes to Catholicism, both literary and social, in the Romantic period. Purves takes this argument seriously, and convincingly refutes it. In her first chapter she examines attitudes to Catholicism in the late eighteenth century, looking closely at the Gordon Riots but showing that this should not preclude our awareness of sympathy towards Catholics in the period, helped along by Burkean Church and King factions who painted Dissent as the real danger.

This is a small example of the ways in which Purves attempts to recontextualize and reassess our understanding of Gothic Catholicism: the cumulative effect of her book is deeply persuasive.

Colonialism: Africa

Her book shows the rich possibilities of such an approach. There were several other articles and teaching resources relating to the Gothic which should be noted this year. Tom J. Meanwhile, of particular interest for those teaching the Gothic, a revised edition of The Handbook of the Gothic , edited by Marie Mulvey-Roberts, was issued this year; previously The Handbook to Gothic Literature , the new title reflects the increasing interdisciplinarity of the subject, and the considerable expansion of the field since its original publication in Essays by Graham Tulloch pp.

There are also some useful case studies on the particular challenges of teaching Scott in diverse ways—alongside Austen, for example, or in the context of queer theory, or to open up questions of gender and multiculturalism. Roderick S. Often seen as opposites in the nineteenth century, Speer shows why and how we should read the two authors together, discussing their meeting in , and their subsequent relationship, literary and affectionate. Simon J. White notes that Scott deliberately associates Ivanhoe with , and therefore draws out telling parallels, both explicit and implicit, with the Pentridge Rising of that year.

There was stimulating research on the afterlives of Scott: Victorian, American, and cinematic. While Cooper may have resented this, Shields, through close reading of the depiction of Scots in two Cooper novels, shows that he was nevertheless indebted to Scott.

Julia V. Jeanne M. Ruppert revisits recent critical perspectives on The Last Man which see it as an imperial critique and a register of contemporary anxieties. He argues, rather, for a positive reading of the novel as a prophecy of hope, an act of faith in the transformative power of imagination.

Two intriguing articles took Valperga and Matilda as a starting point for wider investigations of Romantic attitudes. Perhaps the last word on the Romantic novel this year should go to a pair of articles which suggest and contest further critical approaches. What to do with our new wealth of statistical and bibliographical knowledge about the Romantic novel? Her conclusion is borne out by the variety, excitement, and range of current scholarly approaches to the deeply unsystematic genre of the Romantic novel.

Blake is covered by Jason Whittaker. It was once rare that studies of Romantic poetry discussed either form or organicism except to debunk the terms, but two studies this year took both very seriously. Discussions like these, in which questions of organicism structured an approach to scholarship which connected spheres of influence to each other, ended, for Gigante, with the development of cell theory in the s. She discovers that unity in a shared commitment to vitality. Accordingly, this is a rather brave attempt to reshape thinking about poetry in the period, and an important reorientation of the growing return to formalism in studies of Romantic poetry.

The notion of the organic has been a problematic part of a definition of Romanticism. The power of the imagination to draw contradictions into a transcendent unity has been characterized as a typically Romantic evasion. Fairer opposes this notion in three ways. Rather than seeing these poets as embodying a radical or Romantic break with the past, Fairer uncovers a poetics which values continuity and growth both in its relationship with other contemporary poets but also with the poetic past.

The major achievement of the book lies in the cogency with which Fairer argues for the subtle interweaving of the poetic past into the poetry of his key writers. This requires not just a very wide knowledge, but also a deft touch, which Fairer employs superbly. It is perhaps this strain of the book that will make it most controversial.

But it nonetheless rejects a dominant strand of Romantic criticism. It is all the more powerful for that. This is a deft, rigorous, scholarly study. It is the most significant book published on Romantic poetry this year, and it is likely to have a substantial influence. Much work this year focused on issues of celebrity and the afterlives of the poets.

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Biography thus comes to represent a peculiarly vexed form for male poets. Moreover, by insisting on the domestic nature of that life, biography feminized the poet, and brought him down to earth. But they were not, for North, simply idealizing mystifications but critical engagements with a sentimental Shelley already present in popular culture.

The final chapter considers Lives of Hemans and Landon. These biographies drew on the techniques adopted by biographers of their male compeers, but suggested the superiority of the poetesses in their ability to actively engage with readers. The celebrity industry, with its reviews, its fan letters, and its celebrity biographies, is discussed in ample detail. But Eisner does not let this historical scaffolding obscure the poetry itself. Instead, he offers a series of subtly argued case studies of individual poems which suggest the way that poets encountered, manipulated, and engaged with the system of celebrity.

A brilliant chapter on Landon suggests the ways in which she swerves from a Byronic model of sympathetic feeling, profoundly questioning its implications and considering its effects on the professional female author. This is a subtle, intelligent book that revitalizes the poetry under discussion. It is also an important reflection on the continuing significance of the figure of the author, and the relationship between critics and fans. The author develops a sophisticated theoretical apparatus in order to do so. Italy played a crucial imaginative role in British cultural thought.

The post-Waterloo opening up of the Continent to British travellers provoked anxiety and excitement in equal measure. Shelley, like Hunt, addressed an Anglo-Italian, not an Italian, audience. Their commitment to concepts like freedom and liberty were complicated by their understanding of patriotism.

The circle, Stock shows, was divided between an understanding of Europe connected by liberty, and one in which individual states expressed their freedom through their separation from each other. In the rapidly growing field of Romantic women writers, Stephen C. Behrendt, in British Women Poets and the Romantic Writing Community , presents a bold and compelling study of British female poets between and This work provides a synopsis of larger works, defines popular concepts and abstract ideas such as the "Byronic hero," and offers a Works Consulted list at the end of each entry, making access to further information quick and easy.

Essential to any academic library's reference collection, this encyclopedia will be coveted by students and professors alike. Copyright Reed Business Information, Inc. Detailed and compelling Scholars and history buffs alike will find much to relish in these two volumes. In addition to numerous cross references, helpful bibliographies, and an impressive index, the work features a helpful list of subjects arranged alphabetically, a list of entries by subject matter A worthy investment for all libraries.

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Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13 Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13
Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13 Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13
Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13 Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13
Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13 Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13
Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13 Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13
Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13 Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13
Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13 Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13
Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13 Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13
Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13

Related Encyclopedia of Romanticism (Routledge Revivals): Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s: Volume 13



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