Asterisk Cookbook


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A common way of iterating through several values is by saving them to a variable and separating them with a hyphen. The first method uses the While and EndWhile applications to specify the bounds of the loop, with the check happening at the top of the loop. The second method uses the GotoIf application to check whether the loop continues at the bottom of the loop block.

If we iterate through the loop enough times, the channel variable thisFruit will contain nothing, and the loop will then continue at the EndWhile application, falling through to the rest of the priorities below it. This eliminates the first few milliseconds of a prompt from being cut off. After that, we then start our checks with the GotoIfTime application.

We start with specific matches first such as partic- ular days of the week before we do our more general checks, such as our a. The fields are: time range, days of the week, days of the month, and months. The fifth field, which is optional and specified after the months field, is the timezone field. If you are servicing multiple timezones, you could use this to have dif- ferent menus and groups of people answering the phones between a. We then specify in the same manner for the 1st of January, the 24th of December, and the 25th of December, all of which are handled by the holiday extension.

Normally, people would call the extension , and if it is Monday to Friday, they would be directed to the SIP device registered to [itstaff] in sip. Of course, since the people reading and implementing this probably are IT staff, there is a good chance you will alter this to call at hours which are more sane. The Authenticate application is one of the older applications in Asterisk, and it shows that by the number of available options for something that should be an almost trivial application.

While much of the functionality provided by the Authenticate application can be done in the dialplan using dialplan functions and other applications, it is somewhat nice to have much of the functionality contained within the application directly. The first example required the user to enter a password of followed by the key to signal that entering of digits was complete.

Our second example shows the use of the maxdigits field, with a value of 4, to not require the user to press the key when done entering the password. We went on to show how you could provide a path to the password field, which would allow you to utilize a file for authentication. Using an external file can be useful if you want to use an external script to rotate the password fairly often.

One of the particular uses we can think of would be the SecurID system, by RSA, which uses cards that contain a number that rotates over a period of time to be synchronized with a central- ized server that is using the same algorithm to generate passwords. If you wanted to tie this system into Asterisk, you could have a script that rotated the key on a timely basis. Instead of using a file for the location of the password, there is an option that lets you use the Asterisk DB.

An additional flag, r, can also be provided that removes the key from the database upon successful authentica- tion, which provides a method for one-time-use passwords. The Authenticate application is a general purpose authentication mechanism which provides a base layer without taking into consideration which user or caller is attempt- ing to authenticate. It also provides a centralized repository of credentials the administrator of the system can control and enforce to be secure.

Since we have the ability to skip playing back the initial prompts, we could obtain the mailbox number used for authentication in several ways: by asking the user to provide it using another application or a lookup from a database, or simply by dialing it from the phone and performing a pattern match. With greater control comes greater complexity, and that is illustrated in the examples provided.

We also get to control the method of authentication. In our first example, we showed a fairly basic authentication method which simply asked the caller for a password that we statically defined within the dialplan. If the numbers do not match, we increment a counter, test to see the number has increased to greater than 3, and, if not, request that the caller re- enter her pin.

If the number of tries exceeds 3, then we play a prompt saying goodbye and hang up. When the caller enters the dialplan, we request an access code and a password. This is followed by a check to determine if the caller has entered an invalid account number and, if so, determine if this has happened more than 3 times, in which case we then disconnect the caller. You could even use CURL to pass the data collected from the caller to authenticate against a web page which could then return account information to the caller.

The possibilities with custom dialplan really are only limited by the problems encountered and solved by your imagination. This routine uses a different method, values in AstDB, to control what messages show up. See Table for the AstDB entries read in by the chanlog routine.

If the log level argument is less than or equal to one of these matched entries in the AstDB, then the message will be logged. Table Once this routine has been added to your dialplan, you can start adding log statements to any extensions on your system. The rich set of possibilities for controlling calls is part of what makes Asterisk a telephony applications platform and not just another PBX.

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Hang up. In our example, the cat- egory used is outbound. On the next line, we set the COUNT variable to the number of channels that are marked as being in the myprovider group within the outbound category. One reason that you might want to use this particular example is if you want to limit your exposure to fraudulent calls if an account on your system were to be compromised. An attacker would likely send as many calls through your system at a time as they could, so by limiting the number of calls that cost you money, you limit how many charges an attacker could rack up on you before you catch it.

By using a very similar approach to this example, you can also limit the number of calls that a specific user account is able to make at any given time. Another use would be to set a global call limit on the system. Solution Use the channel originate CLI command. The CLI version of this functionality is most useful when doing quick test calls while writing Asterisk dialplan. The examples above showed how to originate a call to a phone and connect it to something Asterisk. When testing, the use of a Local channel instead of a real phone is incredibly handy. Solution Asterisk provides an application for originating calls from the dialplan.

The syntax is the same as is used with the commonly used Dial application. The app originate mode is used to connect the originated call to an Asterisk application. If more complex call pro- cessing is desired, the exten originate mode can be used to connect the originated call to an extension in the dialplan. The rest of the arguments depend on which originate mode is being used. In the case of the app originate mode, the arguments are: application This is the dialplan application that will be answered when the dialed channel answers.

If the originate mode is exten, the rest of the arguments are: context This is the context in the dialplan that should be used to find the extension to run. This argument is required.

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Asterisk VoIP solutions - the recipe for success

If this argument is not specified, the s extension will be used. If this is not specified, dialplan execution will start at priority 1, which is almost always what you want. There are a lot of cases where you might want to originate a call from the dialplan. One such example is related to the handling of paging.

Perhaps you would like to write an extension that allows a caller to record and review a message to be played out through a paging system, but allow the caller to hang up after recording it, instead of doing the page live or requiring the caller to stay on the phone while the paging process finishes. The way you can accomplish this task is by first writing the dialplan that allows the caller to record something.

Afterwards, the Originate application will be used to trigger the paging process to begin. That way, even if the caller hangs up, the paging process will continue. The Record application would allow them to record their announcement to a file. The recording will end and be saved to disk when the caller presses the key on their phone.

The paging process can be canceled from this point by just hanging up. Next, the Origi nate application starts a new call. On one end of the call is a Local channel, which is executing a short extension that just plays back the recording that was just left. The other end of the call is an extension that uses the Page application. Before executing the Page application, the SIPAddHeader application is used to set a header that will be added to outbound call requests to SIP phones since we want the call to be automatically answered by the phones.

This specific example will work for Polycom phones. One of the features provided by calendar integration in Asterisk is the ability to have calls originated based on calendar events. One of the really great examples in that book shows how to read information out of the calendar event in the dialplan and then use the Originate application to make calls to all participants in the meeting. Other recipes related to this one include Recipe 2.

Solution Create a call file. Use your favorite text editor to create a file called example. There are some things that are important to understand about call files if you choose to use them, though. First, you must understand the syntax and options that are allowed from within a call file. Beyond that, there are some nuances regarding how Asterisk processes call files that you should be aware of. The first mode is for when you connect a channel directly to an application.

The second mode is for when you connect a channel to an extension in the dialplan. For the first mode, con- necting to an application, you must specify which application and the arguments to pass to it: Application: MeetMe Data: For the other mode, connecting a channel to an extension in the dialplan, you must specify the context, extension, and priority in the call file: Context: default Extension: s Priority: 1 The rest of the parameters that may be specified in call files are all optional, but some of them are incredibly useful: Codecs: ulaw, alaw, gsm By default, Asterisk will allow the outbound channel created at the start of the call origination process choose whatever codec s it wants.

If you would like to impose some limits on which codecs the channel may choose, you can specify them as a comma delimited list with the Codecs option. MaxRetries: 2 If the outbound call to the specified channel fails, this is how many times the call will be retried. By default, the call will only be attempted one time. The default is seconds. WaitTime: 30 This is the number of seconds to wait for an answer from the outbound call before considering it a failed attempt.

By default, this is set to 45 seconds. By default, no CallerID infor- mation is provided for the outbound called made to Channel. Account: accountcode Set the accountcode field on the outbound channel. By default, this field is not set at all. AlwaysDelete: Yes Always delete the call file when Asterisk is done processing it.


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Normally, once Asterisk has finished successfully making the call or has given up after the config- ured number of retries, the call file will be deleted. If this option is set to No and the timestamp of the file is modified before Asterisk finishes processing it to be some point in the future, the file will not be deleted. The result is that Asterisk will process this file again when the new time is reached. Archive: Yes Archive call files after processing them.

Before the file is moved, Asterisk will add a Status line to the file to indicate if the originated call was Completed, Expired, or Failed. Now that we have covered all of the options that can be specified, the last bit of business is to make you aware of some of the important details about how Asterisk processes call files. Asterisk starts processing these files as soon as they are created. If you create it directly in this directory, Asterisk may read the contents before you are finished writing the file.

Instead, always create the file somewhere else on the filesystem and move it into this directory when you are ready to make Asterisk aware of its presence. If you set the timestamp to be in the future, Asterisk will not process the file until that time is reached.


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See Also Recipe 2. This is the most popular method for originating calls from custom applications. If the phone does not answer within 30 seconds, the call will be aborted. If the call is answered, it is connected to extension in the LocalExtensions context in the dialplan.

Alternatively, the Originate action can be used to connect a channel directly to an application. It can be helpful in custom applications that may have many outstanding requests at any one time to ensure that responses are associated with the proper request. It will set channel variables on the outbound channel. This can also be used to set dialplan functions. Account Specify the account code that will be placed in the CDR for this call. For recipes that are directly related to this one, see Recipe 2. Solution Use the FollowMe application.

Give up after 20 seconds. However, it takes more work. If this application does what you want, then save yourself the extra effort and just use FollowMe. When the FollowMe application executes, it is going to load the list of phone numbers that were configured in followme.

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When one of the outbound calls is answered, a prompt will be played requesting that the call be acknowledged by pressing a key. One of the main reasons for requiring acknowledgment is that it ensures that if the call is answered by voicemail that FollowMe continues and tries other numbers. See Also There are some additional options available in the followme.

The most important difference is that if you want to tweak any of the behavior, it is much easier to do so in the Asterisk dialplan as opposed to modifying the C code of the FollowMe application. We do not want to answer the call yet, but we want to start playing audio. This is often referred to as early media Download from Wow!

First, we are making an outbound call to a Local channel. This local extension just makes an outbound call to a single SIP device. We could have simply dialed that SIP device directly and the behavior would have been the same. However, the use of the Local channel is more in line with how the FollowMe application works. In the followme. We specify a 20 second timeout for this outbound call attempt.

Finally, we set a couple of options.

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The first option is r, which ensures that Asterisk generates a ring- back tone. We want this because we have already indicated to the caller that we will be providing early media. An alternative to this would be to use the m option of Dial , which would provide hold music instead of ringback. Finally, we use the U option, which executes a GoSub rou- tine on the called channel after it answers, but before connecting it to the inbound channel.

The routine we are using is ackcall, which gives the called channel the option of whether to accept the call. We will come back to the implementation of the ack call routine shortly. You could have as many of these steps as you would like. The Background application is going to play two prompts while also waiting for a digit to be pressed. Press 1 to accept this call, or 2 to reject it. At this point, there are four different cases that may occur: The called party does nothing. This makes the Dial application act like this outbound call attempt returned a busy response.

The called party presses 1 to accept. The call will jump to the 1 extension which does nothing. Control will return to the Dial application and the caller and callee will be bridged together. The called party presses 2 to reject. Dial will treat this outbound call attempt as busy.

The caller presses a different key. Jump to: navigation , search.

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In the example above the parameters used are: user — the user id for the SIP server example: authuser - user authorization optional to the SIP server secret - the user password host - server name example: mysipprovider. The default is Navigation menu Personal tools Log in. Namespaces Page Discussion. Views Read View source View history. Navigation Main page Recent changes Random page Help.

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